Japan’s Whaling Problem
Japan continuing JARPA?
on who you ask, you will get a variety of reasons why the Japanese have
continued its whaling practices. The Japanese government maintains that JARPA
is purely for scientific purposes while the fishing industry has largely cited
preserving Japanese culture and supplementing the Japanese economy as its main
reasons. Citizen groups and concerned experts however believe otherwise.
According to the Japanese government, whaling has a strong and deeply
rooted history in Japanese culture, being referenced in many ancient Japanese
texts such as “Whaling history” by Seijun Otsuki as well as depicted in many
traditional paintings such as Hokusai’s Chie no Umi, Goto Kujira Tsuki.
However, many critics often discount this claim. Although Japanese history does
show whaling activities, it was limited to several minor coastal towns. Whaling
did not become prominent in Japan until the 20th century with the
advent of modern ships and harpoon guns (Head, 2005). Whaling does have a long
history in several coastal towns, but the country as a whole only recently
became acquainted with it.
Japan’s main argument for maintaining the JARPA program is that the
program is necessary for scientific research. According to the Japanese Whaling
Association, a “large range of information is needed for the management and
conservation of whales, such as population, age structure, growth rates, age of
maturity, reproductive rates, feeding, nutrition and levels of contaminants.
Also, this type of important information cannot be obtained through small DNA
samples or analysis of organochlorine, but only through lethal research.”
(Japan Whaling Association, 2008)
Experts however, have largely discredited this claim. Dr. Susan
Lieberman, Director of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), as well as other
scientists from the WWF, point out that analysis of skin samples from whales
can answer many of the questions that the JARPA program seeks to answer,
without harming the whale. According to the WWF, “genetic analysis of small
skin samples - collected with a non-harmful special biopsy dart - is now widely
used to understand the population structure of many mammals. The skin sample is
also able to provide solid information on the whale's gender, its reproduction
rates as well as give a picture of its diet over a long time period.” (WWF,
Although this technology did not exist when JARPA began, it is now
widely available. Yet, Japan continues to cull whales under the blanket of
research. Furthermore, the whales being culled for research purposes have mostly
ended up on supermarket shelves. These facts have caused many groups to call
JARPA a “sham” and consider the program “impractical” (Head, 2005).
Japan argues that its whaling industry is very important to maintaining
the economies of its coastal towns, citing that the revenue from the whale meat
generates $50 million per year. Japan also argues that having whale meat
delicacies will bring more tourists to its coastal villages, further boosting
the income of the villages. The real facts, however, have been cast into doubt.
Japanese perception towards whaling
Although whale meat is consumed in Japan, it is not in high demand.
Whale meat is served only in a few specialty restaurants and is rarely eaten by
the younger crowd, who considers the taste to be disgusting, or the older generation,
who considers whale meat a reminder of the poor times after World War II (Head,
2005). This lack of demand was further emphasized when Japan’s local school
districts had to mandate the consumption of whale meat in schools in order to
try to clear out the large stockpiles that had accumulated (Sekiguchi, 2007).
Japan’s whaling consumer industry gained further negative publicity when Prof.
Tetsuya Endo from the University of Hokkaido published papers that warned of
dangerously high levels of mercury in whale meat (Fackler, 2008).
With many figures showing the low demand of whale meat in the Japanese
market, experts have questioned how the industry is able to generate any
revenue at all. In fact, many believe that the industry is only able to
generate a profit because it is being heavily subsidized by the Japanese
government though no actual figures have been reported. If true, this means
that the Japanese are actually losing money by allowing the whaling program to
If generating revenues for its coastal villages through tourism was
Japan’s main concern, then it should switch from whale hunting to whale saving.
In his book “Whale watching 2001:
Worldwide tourism numbers, expenditures and expanding socioeconomic benefits,” Erik Hoyt estimates that the global whale
watching industry generates a revenue of $1.5 billion each year. The $50
million that the Japanese whaling industry claims to make seems minor in
comparison. Should Japan decide to promote the whale watching industry
by caring for the whales, it has the potential to become a leading competitor
in the industry due to its advantageous location.
Many activist organizations inwardly theorize that Japan is using the
issue of whaling as a bait to keep international attention away from its other
fishing practices. As a nation surrounded by water, Japan relies heavily on its
fishing industry to provide fish that makes up a large part of Japanese cuisine
as well as revenue. However, with the current worldwide trend in declining fish
stocks, Japan is worried that worldwide attention will divert from the whaling
issue, and will refocus on the issue of preserving other threatened species of
fish that the Japanese rely on in their staple diet, such as salmon and tuna
(Head, 2005).To further add to the argument that Japan does not want
international attention focused elsewhere, Japan recently admitted to exceeding
its catch quota for blue-fin tuna for 2007 (Sekiguchi, 2007). Should international
attention become focused on preserving other marine life, Japan’s all-important
fishing culture and fishing industry could become threatened, thus, it is
perhaps in Japan’s best interest to keep international debate focused mainly on
Many Japanese citizens believe that Japan is fighting to maintain JARPA
in order to maintain its nationalistic pride (Hogg, 2006). Japan is a proud
nation that has successfully kept its cultural identity through European
imperialism. After World War II however, Japan was reduced to a shell of its
former glory. Already shamed by losing the war, Japan was further shamed when
American forces occupied, imposed western laws, and demilitarized the nation. To
further add to Japan’s shame, Japan finally agreed to sign the 1986 IWC whaling
moratorium largely due to threats of economic sanctions from the US. Japan has
always considered itself to be bullied by the western nations and only recently
have the Japanese developed the economic and international power to compete.
Many nationalists view the whaling controversy as another issue where Japan is
being bullied by the western nations; this time, however, they are willing to
Picture:Chie no Umi, Goto Kujira Tsuki painted by Hokusai in 1826.
Picture:The lead Japanese Whaling Ship, Nisshin Maru.
Picture: Raw whale meat on a platter.
Picture: Whale watching is a growing industry.
Picture: A large selection of Tuna at Japan's famed Tsukiji fish market.