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Sweetness Versus Science

Introduction

Corn in the USA

The Science Behind America's Favorite Sweetener

The Debate

The Princeton Study

America's Return to Sugar

Conclusion

References & Links


Comments & questions to:
mvogel@macalester.edu

Sweetness Versus Science:

The Battle Over High-Fructose Corn Syrup



References

"Added Sweeteners: Are High-fructose Corn Syrup and Other Sweeteners Fueling the American Obesity Epidemic?" Harvard Health Letter 31.12 (2006). EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2010. <http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.macalester.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=keh&AN=22428150&site=ehost-live>.

Alvarez, Jose, and Leo C. Polopolus. "The History of U.S. Sugar Protection." University of Flordia IFAS Extension. Oct. 2008. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. <http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sc019>.

"AMA Finds High Fructose Syrup Unlikely to Be More Harmful to Health than Other Caloric Sweeteners." Sweet Surprise. American Medical Association, 17 June 2008. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://www.sweetsurprise.com/sites/default/files/AMARelease6-17-08.pdf>.

Anthony, Mark. "HFCS (Highly Fattening or Crappy Science?)." Food Processing. The Food & Beverage Industry, 31 July 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. <http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2007/177.html>.

Bovard, James. "The Great Sugar Shaft." Welcome to The Future of Freedom Foundation. Freedom Daily, Apr. 1998. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <http://www.fff.org/freedom/0498d.asp>.

Bray, G. A., S. J. Nielsen, and B. M. Popkin. "Consumption of High-fructose Corn Syrup in Beverages May Play a Role in the Epidemic of Obesity." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2004): 537-43. PubMed.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Apr. 2004. Web. 4 Apr. 2010. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15051594>.

"Corn Refiners Association Advertising | SweetSurprise.com." High Fructose Corn Syrup Health and Diet Facts. SweetSurprise.com. Web. 18 Apr. 2010. <http://www.sweetsurprise.com/news-and-press/advertising>.

Donovan, Lisa. "Mexican Coke: It's the Real Thing." Chicago Sun-Times 4 Feb. 2009, Food sec. Chicago Sun-Times. Web. 03 Apr. 2010. <http://www.suntimes.com/lifestyles/food/1411332,FOO-News-det04.article>.

Ettlinger, Steve. Twinkie, Deconstructed: My Journey to Discover How the Ingredients Found in Processed Foods Are Grown, Mined (yes, Mined), and Manipulated into What America Eats. New York, NY: Hudson Street, 2007. Print.

"Food & Drug Administration." High Fructose Corn Syrup Health and Diet Facts. SweetSurprise.com. Web. 04 Apr. 2010. <http://sweetsurprise.com/experts-on-hfcs/fda>.

"Fructose & Uric Acid." High Fructose Corn Syrup Health and Diet Facts. SweetSurprise.com. Web. 17 Apr. 2010. <http://www.sweetsurprise.com/science-and-research/studies/fructose-uric-acid>.

"Fructose Containing Beverages Linked to Liver Scarring." DukeHealth.org. Duke Medicine News and Communications, 18 Mar. 2010. Web. 04 Apr. 2010. <http://www.dukehealth.org/health_library/news/fructose_containing_beverages_linked_to_liver_scarring>.

High Fructose Corn Syrup Health and Diet Facts. SweetSurprise.com. Web. 17 Apr. 2010. <http://www.sweetsurprise.com/>.

"How to Avoid High Fructose Corn Syrup: 7 Steps (with Pictures)." WikiHow - The How-to Manual That You Can Edit. 3 May 2010. Web. 04 May 2010. <http://www.wikihow.com/Avoid-High-Fructose-Corn-Syrup>.

Kent, Muhtar. "Coke Didn't Make America Fat." The Wall Street Journal 7 Oct. 2009, Opinion sec. The Wall Street Journal- Business News & Financial News. Web. 04 Apr. 2010. <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703298004574455464120581696.html>.

Laskawy, Tom. "Researchers: HFCS Is Much Worse than Table Sugar." Grist | Environmental News, Commentary, Advice. 22 Mar. 2010. Web. 04 May 2010. <http://www.grist.org/article/researchers-yes.-hfcs-is-much-worse-than-table-sugar>.

Lee, Jennifer. "Reading the Tea Leaves, Snapple Refreshes Itself." The New York Times 19 Feb. 2009, City Room- Blogging From the Five Boroughs sec. Print.

Melanson, Kathleen J., Linda Zukley, Joshua Lowndes, Von Nguyen, Theodore J. Angelopoulos, and James M. Rippe. "Effects of High-fructose Corn Syrup and Sucrose Consumption on Circulating Glucose, Insulin, Leptin, and Ghrelin and on Appetite in Normal-weight Women." Nutrition 23 (2007): 103-12. Research Citations. Sweet Surprise. Web. 4 Apr. 2010. <http://www.sweetsurprise.com/science-and-research/citations>.

Morrill, Allison C., and Christopher D. Chinn. "The Obesity Epidemic in the United States." Journal of Public Health Policy 25.3 (2004): 353-66. JSTOR. Web. 10 Mar. 2010.

Nestle, Marion. "HFCS Makes Rats Fat?" Web log post. Food Politics. 24 Mar. 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2010. <http://www.foodpolitics.com/2010/03/hfcs-makes-rats-fat/>.

"News & Press." High Fructose Corn Syrup Health and Diet Facts. SweetSurprise.com. Web. 04 Apr. 2010. <http://www.sweetsurprise.com/news-and-press>.

Parker, Hilary. "A Sweet Problem: Princeton Researchers Find That High-fructose Corn Syrup Prompts Considerably More Weight Gain." News at Princeton. 22 Mar. 2010. Web. 4 Apr. 2010. <http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S26/91/22K07/>.

"Party TV Spot | SweetSurprise.com." High Fructose Corn Syrup Health and Diet Facts. SweetSurprise.com. Web. 17 Apr. 2010. <http://www.sweetsurprise.com/videos/party-tv-spot>.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: a Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006. Print.
Severson, Kim. "Sugar Is Back on Food Labels, This Time as a Selling Point." The New York Times 21 Mar. 2009. Web. 4 Apr. 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/21/dining/21sugar.html>.

"Soda Warning? New Study Supports Link Between Diabetes, High-fructose Corn Syrup." Newswise: News for Journalists, Press Release Distribution for Public Relations. American Chemical Society, 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 04 May 2010. <http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/532433/>.

Winter, Ruth. A Consumer's Dictionary of Food Additives: Descriptions in Plain English of More than 12,000 Ingredients Both Harmful and Desirable Found in Foods. New York: Three Rivers, 2004. Print.

YouTube- Sugar: The Bitter Truth. Perf. Dr. Robert Lustig. YouTube- Broadcast Yourself. UCTelevision, 30 July 2009. Web. 04 May 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM>.

Photos in Header from Flickr (left to right):

   macz_out, Food Thinkers, nafmo, radville

    



Corn on the Cob

Figure 1: Corn on the Cob, photo by Akash k








Corn Maze

Figure 6: Child in a corn maze, photo by bill barber











Corn Sweetener Train Car

Figure 2: Corn Sweeteners Train Car, photo by boeke








Drinks without HFCS

Figure 5: New drinks that do not contain HFCS, photo by Great Beyond

Last updated:  5/7/2010

 


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Comments and questions to mvogel@macalester.edu