Course Descriptions

Geography

GEOG 111 - Human Geography of Global Issues

This course is an introduction to the global perspectives, basic concepts and fundamental questions of geography. It focuses on the ways through which all places on Earth are interconnected and how the human use of Earth's surface varies over space. Major topics covered will be the human perception of earth space and the ways people give order to space; the growth and distribution of human population; the localization and spatial characteristics of patterns of settlement and land use; geopolitics and colonialism; environmental geography; the geography of economic development and modernization; principles of the analysis of spatial diffusion; spatial aspects of retail marketing; the geographic analysis of selected issues in industrialized societies such as gender issues, racism, poverty, sport, and religion.

Frequency: Every semester.

GEOG 116 - Physical Geography

A systematic introduction to the processes operating on the surface of the earth, their spatial variation, and their contribution to the spatial patterning of life on earth. The course stresses interactions among climate, landforms, soils and vegetation and, to a lesser extent, examines human interaction with the environment.

Frequency: Not offered in 2013-2014 or 2014-2015.

GEOG 194 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

GEOG 201 - Introduction to Urban Studies

This course offers an interdisciplinary overview of urban life. We will draw on the disciplinary perspectives of history, geography, political science and sociology to examine how the built environment of cities are shaped by human activity and how, in turn, urban life is shaped by the built environment. This course also introduces students to the local urban setting in the Twin Cities through field study exercises and local case studies. The course focuses on building students' analytical skills and foundational knowledge of how cities work by exploring a variety of topics, including the effect of transportation systems on urban development, city and metropolitan government, the search for community in urban settings, neighborhood change, and the effect of the global market economy on cities. Course materials focus on American cities. Lectures, guest speakers, case studies and assignments put a special emphasis on the urban experience in St. Paul. This particular focus will help students gain a grounded understanding of general knowledge that is fundamental to further study of cities.

Frequency: Every fall.

GEOG 225 - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

This course provides an introduction to cartography, visualization, and analyses of geospatial data, as well as hands-on experience in a lab with a powerful computer information system. Students will learn the basics of mapping/cartography (e.g. scale, projections, map design) and Geographic Information Systems. Students will create maps with commonly used digital data (e.g., aerial photographs, census boundaries, digital elevation models, etc.), and master basic methods of spatial analyses. Both concepts and techniques will be taught in this course. Hands-on assignments include classification of demographic data and query/analysis of vector and raster data. One and one half laboratory hours per week required. $25 materials fee required.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

GEOG 232 - People, Agriculture and the Environment

This course introduces you to the study of human-environment interactions from a geographic perspective, with a special emphasis on the role of humans in changing the face of the earth and how, in turn, this changing environment influences humans. The course will examine environmental issues in a variety of geographic contexts (developed and developing countries) and the connections between environmental problems in different locations. Students will explore the fundamentals of environmental science, economics, cultural and political ecology, as well as a number of sectoral issues related to human population growth, agriculture, water resources, biodiversity, forest resources, energy use, climate change, and environmental health.

Cross-Listed as

ENVI 232

GEOG 241 - Urban Geography

This course seeks to explain the evolving pattern of North American cities and their antecedents in terms of the distribution and movement of people and resources as well as the effects of changes in transportation and communication technology. In addition, a careful analysis of the development and internal spatial structure of North American cities will be carried out. Much class time will be spent on discussion of contemporary urban problems such as segregation, unequal investment, and control of public space as well as attempts at their solution. We make extensive use of the Twin Cities as a case study. Field work required.

Frequency: Fall semester.

GEOG 242 - Regional Geography of the US and Canada

This course explores the ways in which diverse groups of people interact with the natural environment to produce the contemporary landscapes and regional differentiation of the U.S. and Canada. The course emphasizes patterns of human settlement, economic activity, and land use, with special focus given to the development of Native American lands. Case studies and a field study to the Boreal Forest region of northern Minnesota will be used to demonstrate broad themes at a more personal scale. $35 field trip fee required.

Frequency: Fall semester.

GEOG 243 - Geography of Africa: Local Resources and Livelihoods in a Global Context

This class seeks to go beyond the superficial media interpretations of the vast African continent. As geographers, students will attempt to place contemporary African developments in a historical and global context. The course provides a basic background in African history and geography, leading to discussion of advanced topics in contemporary African studies. The course takes a systematic rather than regional approach, examining sets of issues, rather than regions or countries of Africa. The course covers a broad range of topics, including: Africa in historical perspective; physical geography (physical landscapes, climate, vegetation, soils); human-environment interactions (forest degradation, desertification); population dynamics (population growth, distribution and mobility); culture and change (religion, modernization); development (ideology and economic development, Africa in the global economy); social geography (African women and development, education); medical geography (disease, health care and policy); agricultural development (traditional farming systems, cash crops, policy); urban economies (evolution of the urban structure, industry, housing); and political geography (democratization, conflict).

GEOG 245 - Regional Geography of Post-Soviet Union

This course deals with the complexities of the geography of the world's largest set of states, the Post-Soviet Union. Discussions center on the growth and expansion of Russia in pre-evolutionary times and the solidification and demise of the Soviet Union in the 20th century. Particular attention is drawn to the physical setting, settlement patterns, population growth and composition, ethnic groups, economic patterns, relationships of the Post-Soviet Union with other regions of the world, and prospects for the future. Case method instruction is used in this course.

Frequency: Not offered in 2013-2014 or 2014-2015.

GEOG 247 - Regional Geography of the Middle East

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the variety of geographic factors that make up the area traditionally known as the Middle East (Egypt to Iran). Its aim is to enable the student to understand and appreciate the complex relationships of this fascinating region, both internally and to the rest of the world. We investigate the region from a variety of scales, including the individual, the ethnic group, the city and state. The course begins by laying a geographic foundation and then moving off into specific locales around the tri-continental hub. We will pay particular attention to how geography investigates some of the region's most contentious contemporary issue. Through a combination of lecture, discussion and case study activities the class will explore the region's resource base, history, politics, economy, religions and cultures. We will cover a wide variety of topics searching for the linkages between the cultural, physical and social geographies of the Middle East.

Frequency: Not offered in 2013-2014 or 2014-2015.

GEOG 248 - The Political Geography of Nations and Nationalism

This course investigates how nations and nationalism affect social identity and the organization of territory in our world. Political geography offers concepts and approaches to help us think through the complex intersections of people, place, and politics that constitute the struggle to create and maintain nation-states. Thus the first part of the course is devoted to enhancing your understanding of core concepts, such as nation, state, territory, sovereignty, scale, borders, and geographical imagination. The ultimate purpose of this first part of the course then is to assemble a framework for understanding why our contemporary organization of territory throughout the world looks the way it does. Equipped with these foundations, we explore topics in the second part of class that help you think critically about the stability of nations and the organization of territory into the nation-state system as well as challenges to these institutions. Toward this end, you will also conduct an independent research project on a single group's attempt to create a nation-state. Throughout the course, we will bring our investigations to bear on everyday life, exploring how nations and nationalism shape our world in dramatic and mundane ways.

Frequency: Spring semester.

GEOG 249 - Regional Geography of Latin America

This course explores one of the world's most vibrant regions, Latin America. Extending from the Rio Grande to Tierra del Fuego, this world region stretches across diverse landscapes, from tropical rainforests to the snowcapped peaks of the Andes, from mega-cities to empty deserts and plains. This variety of environments fosters great cultural diversity, as well: although the nations of Latin America share similar historical roots, each one has its own character and its own complex geography. This course explores the geography of Latin America through a combination of thematic and regional approaches. Major topics include physical geography and the natural environment; pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern history; race and identity; urbanism; agriculture and land use; major environmental problems; economy and development; international migration; Latino culture and identity in the U.S.; and the economic and cultural impacts of globalization. Along with such general themes, we will also examine the cultural geography of specific core regions, including The Caribbean, Mexico, Brazil, the Andean Countries, and the Argentine Pampas. Through projects that explore different elements of Latin America's cultural geography, students will get a close-up perspective on the region.

Frequency: Fall semester.

Cross-Listed as

LATI 249

GEOG 250 - Race, Place and Space

In this discussion-based course we focus on the racialized places of U.S. cities, rural towns and suburbs in an effort to understand how social, historic, and spatial forces have colluded to bring about complex and enduring racial formations. We will look for race and related social categories in places around St. Paul and Minneapolis. By engaging theories about visuality and representation, urban development and suburban sprawl, and social movements for racial justice, we will develop a specialized vocabulary for explaining how race, place, and space are connected. This course requires prior exposure to at least one of the following areas: American Studies, human geography, sociology of race/ethnicity, or urban studies.

Frequency: Offered occasionally.

Cross-Listed as

AMST 250

GEOG 252 - Water and Power

This course develops an interdisciplinary approach to studying water resources development, drawing from geography, anthropology, history, politics, hydrology, and civil engineering. With a focus on large river basins, the course examines historical and emerging challenges to the equitable and sustainable use of transboundary waters. After first exploring the history of American water development, we will turn our attention to issues around sanitation, food production, gender and privatization in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.

Frequency: Fall semester.

Prerequisite(s)

ENVI 120, ENVI 133, or ENVI 232.

Cross-Listed as

ENVI 252 and POLI 252

GEOG 254 - Population 7 Billion: Global Population Issues and Trends

This course challenges students to critically examine global population issues from a local-scale perspective and to understand the local context in which regional and international population patterns emerge. Using the lens of Geography, we will investigate the dynamic interplay between individual, local, regional, national, and international scales and the implications of scale, culture and perspective in dissecting current population issues. We will also use individual countries as case studies to examine population policies. Students will acquire a working knowledge of the data and methods used by population geographers to describe and analyze changes in human populations at sub-national scales, and will implement these skills in an independent research project.

Frequency: Fall semester.

GEOG 256 - Medical Geography

This course examines the geographical dimensions of health and disease, including global and domestic public health issues. Key approaches and themes include the human ecology approach to health; epidemiological mapping and spatial analysis; environmental health, including the environmental causes of cancer; the relationship among demographic change, economic development, and population health; the political economy of non-communicable health problems, such as lead poisoning and the "obesity epidemic"; the spatial diffusion of infectious diseases; the disease ecology approach to infectious and vector-borne diseases, e.g. malaria, West Nile virus, and Lyme disease; and the challenges of "global health" in the 21st century, with special emphasis on "emerging infectious diseases," such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and Avian influenza.

GEOG 258 - Geography of Environmental Hazards

The study of environmental hazards stands at a key point of intersection between the natural and social sciences. Geography, with its focus on human-environment interactions, provides key analytical tools for understanding the complex causes and uneven impacts of hazards around the world. We will explore the geophysical nature and social dimensions of disasters caused by floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, tornadoes, hurricanes, and wildfires. For each of these hazard types, we apply theoretical concepts from major hazards research paradigms, including quantifying the human and economic impacts of disaster; assessing, managing, and mitigating risk; and reducing the impacts of disaster, not only through engineering works but also by reducing social vulnerability and enhancing adaptive capacity. Looking into the future, we will discuss how global-scale processes, such as climate change and globalization, might affect the frequency, intensity, and geographical distribution of environmental hazards in the decades to come.

Cross-Listed as

ENVI 258

GEOG 261 - Geography of World Urbanization

This course is focused on the development of the global urban system. Primary topics include the rise of non-industrial cities in Africa and Asia, rise and expansion of the industrial urban network in Europe, colonial cities and the growth of "world cities," those large urban areas that are command and control points in the world economy. In addition, models of the internal spatial structure of cities in various parts of the world will be examined. Special emphasis will be given to the comparison of socialist and capitalist urban planning. Students will be responsible for conducting research on specific urban systems in different regions.

Frequency: Spring semester.

GEOG 262 - Metro Analysis

This course discusses the foundations of American urban life and metropolitan development today, and examines how and why urban housing markets operate as they do within American metropolitan regions. Topics covered in the course include: the metropolitan economy, land use patterns, urban housing supply and demand, the geography of urban housing markets, suburbanization, transportation, and public policy debates. By the end of the course, students will have mastered some of the methods used to describe metropolitan organization and change, and be able to analyze how changes in the economy and society relate to metropolitan land use.

Frequency: Fall Semester

GEOG 263 - Geography of Development and Underdevelopment

This course introduces students to the geographic study of development around the world, with a particular emphasis on the Global South. The geographic approach emphasizes: the highly uneven nature of development; processes that link and differentiate various areas of the world; connections between development and the natural resource base; and the power relations inherent in development discourse. The course has three main sections: an introduction to development theory; an investigation of various development themes; and an intense exploration of what works and what doesn't in development practice. While much of the development literature has focused on failure, a specific aim of this course will be to uncover and interrogate success stories.

Frequency: Spring semester.

GEOG 294 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

GEOG 341 - Urban Social Geography: City Life and Landscapes

Urban social geography is the study of social and spatial dimensions of city life. In this course, we will explore some of the ways in which urban society is organized geographically. We will also consider how the spatial patterns of urban life influence public policy issues in the American context. Topics covered in this course include causes of racial segregation, debates about gentrification, sustainable suburban development, the transition from government to governance in cities, and the delivery of urban services that affect the education, health and economic welfare of urban populations. Students will learn current research, engage debates about critical urban issues, and learn techniques useful for analyzing spatial patterns in the urban landscape.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 201 or GEOG 241 or GEOG 262 or instructor permission.

Cross-Listed as

AMST 341

GEOG 362 - Introduction to Remote Sensing

This course provides an introduction to the use of remotely sensed data in geographical/environmental research. Remote sensing is the science of acquiring data using techniques that do not require actual contact with the object or area being observed. The different sensors used to collect this information, and the interpretation techniques vary quite widely, and are being developed at an astounding rate. In this course, the focus is on the interpretation and applications of data from spaceborne imaging systems (eg: Landsat MMS, Landsat TM, ETM+, Quickbird and SPOT). The number of disciplines which utilize remotely sensed data continues to increase. Geologists, geographers, climatologists, and ecologists have all adapted remote sensing techniques to their respective research. This course will briefly discuss many different uses of remotely sensed data, but focuses on natural resources management and ecological applications. Three hours of lecture plus one hour of lab each week. $25 materials fee required.

Frequency: Offered once each year.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 225

GEOG 364 - GIS and Community Partnerships

In this course we collaborate with a local partner to collect, analyze and present geospatial information. Our primary tool is a Geographic Information System. Through meetings and discussions with our partner, we develop a plan for data collection and analysis and then work collaboratively to finish the project. This course may include field excursions to local sites as well as significant time devoted to working in groups and individually. We focus on the basics of project management as well as technical skills. In previous semesters we have collaborated with partners engaged in natural resource management, urban studies, and geographic education. Topics covered in the course include data collection, data quality and metadata, data structures, visualization, and spatial analysis and modeling. Lab section is required. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour per week required. $25 materials fee is required.

Frequency: Fall semester.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 225 or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 365 - Urban GIS

This course allows students to participate in a "real world" application of their GIS knowledge and skills in a collaborative research project setting. Project focus is on urban GIS and questions developed by and for neighborhoods and other community research organizations. Content of the course includes development of the research project, acquisition and utilization of data used in urban analysis, data manipulation and analytical techniques unique to urban GIS, and geographical data visualization. Laboratory work is required. $25 materials fee is required.

Frequency: Spring semester.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 225 and permission of instructor.

GEOG 366 - GIS for Global Urban Environments

This course builds on skills learned in the Introductory Geographic Information Systems (GIS) course by focusing explicitly on geospatial techniques commonly used for analyzing global urban environments. We will investigate how planning organizations and non-profits use GIS to analyze and manage urban systems such as transportation, land use, and local community development initiatives. Examples of GIS applications will be drawn from cities from each of the major world regions with the goal of understanding how this technology facilitates the management of these complex environments. Labs and lectures will focus on the application of GIS tools to such areas as transportation planning, land use planning, location analysis, and community development utilizing both vector and raster environments. Students will be required to complete a final independent project. Lab section registration is required. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour per week required. $25 materials fee is required.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 225

GEOG 367 - Environmental Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

This course is designed for upper-division undergraduate students seeking greater understanding of GIS theory, technology, and application in environmental issues. It includes an expansion of GIS theory and its implementation through the applied techniques of GIS. The course first introduces resources to help students succeed in the class. It then covers how to obtain data, customize it for a particular study site, input it into a GIS analysis, and then interpret and present the results. The course also provides a series of environmental case studies demonstrating a variety of analysis tools and techniques. Lectures and labs cover all aspects of GIS analysis, in sequence from data acquisition, manipulation, creation, visualization, analysis and GIS application. Few of the environmental case studies covered in the class are wetland restoration and invasive species mapping, REDD analysis, tree height and forest density measurement using LiDAR data, land use and land cover change analysis, forest fragmentation analysis and hydrological modeling - DRASTIC model. Three hours lecture plus one hour lab. $25 materials fee required.

Frequency: Offered once per year.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 225

GEOG 370 - Advanced Cartography and Geovisualization

In our increasingly visual culture, displaying, analyzing and interpreting data visually is becoming more important than ever. Governments, non-profits, marketing agencies, corporations and activits are striving to communicate with the public using data visualization. Geovisualization adds a spatial component to data visualization. Geovisualization is both a process for displaying data and an interdisciplinary field of study that develops new methods and tools for data visualization. Cartography plays an important role in geovisualization, lending design principles and techniques to this new and emerging field of study. This course is a combination of discussions on current topics and hands-on lab exercises and projects based on geovisualization methods and advanced cartographic techniques. Discussion and lab topics may include cartography, typography, geovisualization, spatio-temporal mapping, interactive mapping, interface design and usability, web mapping, 3D and animated mapping, critical cartography and location-based services. Esri's arcGIS suite and online open source software are used to complete lab assignments.

Frequency: Offered periodically.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 225

GEOG 375 - Rural Landscapes and Livelihoods

This course introduces students to Rural Geography, a sub-discipline within Geography. Using a sustainable development framework this course emphasizes the linkages between human and physical landscapes through the evaluation of landuse and community change in rural areas throughout the US. We will explore the implications of demographic (including migration and immigration), economic, cultural, and environmental changes for rural environs using several case studies from across the US and Western Europe, including an overnight field trip to northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Rural community strategies for adapting to and accommodating competing demands for water and landuse will be considered, including pressure for new housing developments, recreation opportunities (boating, fishing, hiking, biking), and conservation needs. Students will be exposed to theoretical and empirical approaches to rural development in different regional contexts, as well as problems associated with these development paradigms. We will explore the rapidly changing rural environments in a developed world context in order to deepen our understanding of the interconnectedness of human and physical systems more broadly. $35 field trip fee required.

Cross-Listed as

ENVI 375

GEOG 377 - Qualitative Research Methods

Social scientists use qualitative methods to understand the ways in which societal associations operate and how people experience, contribute to, or try to change these associations. Qualitative methods are thus concerned with analyzing processes and experiences. This course trains students to use qualitative research methods to collect data, analyze it, draw authoritative conclusions, and observe professional research ethics. The course emphasizes how qualitative methods contribute to scientific research and how ethical treatment of research participants affects the practice of qualitative research. Above all, the course focuses on training students to conduct qualitative research that contributes to our understanding of human geographies. Students will develop these skills by engaging in a semester-long research project for a client. Participation in this project will help you learn how to plan, prepare, and carry out a qualitative research project on a deadline. Our client is Freshwater Society, a nonprofit environmental education organization, with whom we will work collaboratively to evaluate one of their programs. Their Master Water Stewards program is a multi-year effort that aims to enlarge the ways people perceive urban watersheds and help people change their behaviors in ways that positively impact the watershed.

Prerequisite(s)

GEOG 111

GEOG 378 - Statistical Research Methods in Geography

This course focuses on the statistical methods that geographers use to describe and analyze places and themes. Students will learn both descriptive and inferential statistical methods for use in geographical research, including exploratory data analysis techniques, spatial statistics, geographic sampling, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis. The course provides students with experience in the application of statistical methods to spatial problems through the use of statistical software. Students will also learn to evaluate and develop statistical research designs, including preparation and presentation of an original research project.

Frequency: Spring semester.

GEOG 394 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

GEOG 488 - Seminar

Cities of the 21st Century: The Political Economy of Urban Sustainability (cross-listed with ENVI 478 when offered as a seminar with the same title)T
The purpose of this course is to understand the practices and concepts that constitute the movement for sustainable cities and investigate the ways in which urban sustainability initiatives are generated and how they vary geographically. The course adopts a political economy perspective to trace the complex interactions of institutions, politics, and economic systems that shape initiatives for more sustainable cities. Students will work in the first part of the course to enhance their understanding of core concepts and best practices that constitute the professional field of sustainable urban development and assemble a framework for analyzing the ways in which sustainability initiatives come to fruition and approach the idea of sustainability in a particular way. Equipped with these foundations, we then analyze case studies in the second part of course that focus on the meaning of sustainability, its practice internationally, and the ultimate impact of these practices on ecological balance, economic sustainability, and social equity in the urban environment. Toward these ends, students will conduct a semester-long senior capstone research project that investigates a particular urban sustainability initiative in the world by tracing the political economy of its creation and considering its impact on society, economy, and environment. (4 credits)

Comparative Environment and Development Studies (cross-listed with ENVI 477 and INTL 477 when each are offered as a seminar with the same title)
A concern for the relationship between nature and society has been one of the pillars of geographic inquiry, and has also been an important bridge between other disciplines. By the 1960s, this area of inquiry was referred to variously as "human ecology" or "cultural ecology." Over the last decade certain forms of inquiry within this tradition have increasingly referred to themselves as "political ecology." The purpose of this seminar is to review major works within the traditions of cultural and political ecology; examine several areas of interest within these fields (e.g., agricultural modernization, environmental narratives, conservation, ecotourism); and explore nature-society dynamics across a range of geographical contexts. Towards the end of the course students will explore how one might begin to think in practical terms about facilitating development in marginal environments. Note: Completion of GEOG 232 prior to registering for this seminar is strongly encouraged. Historical Geography of Urbanization A research methods course in which students will conduct inquiries on the development of urban settlement forms throughout the world. The genesis of contemporary American landscapes with an emphasis on the Middle West. Field trips and individual projects. The seminar frequently produces studies of a neighborhood in cooperation with a local community. It is part of Macalester's Civic Engagement initiatives.  Note: Completion of GEOG 241 prior to registering for this seminar is strongly encouraged. (4 credits)

Medical Geography: The Human Ecology of Vector-Borne Diseases
In this course, we adopt a broadly geographical perspective to shed light on the causes, consequences, and control of vector-borne diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Lyme disease. Although we will draw largely on the literature in medical geography, an understanding of the social and ecological dimensions of these diseases requires integration of concepts from many other fields, including biology, ecology, history, economics, politics, medicine, and public health. Topics include the natural history of microbial and vector co-evolution with human populations; the modern history of medical and public health interventions against vector-borne disease, including the global malaria eradication program; the social and economic burden that disease places on developing countries today; the impact of environmental transformations (e.g. climate change, land cover change) on the ecology, intensity, and geographical distribution of these diseases; and the use of GIS and spatial analysis to evaluate and model the distribution, prevalence, and causes of vector-borne disease. We will also weigh the merits of different control strategies and study the scientific, technical, and political challenges to effectively controlling vector-borne diseases in regions where they are endemic. Since this is a seminar course, we will also emphasize developing your skills in scholarly research and writing, as well as learning how to evaluate and integrate insights from different disciplines. Note: Completion of GEOG 256 prior to registering for this seminar is encouraged. (4 credits)

Migrants, Migration and the Global Landscape of Population Change
Castles and Miller argue that we are living in the age of migration -- a period in history when a greater proportion of the human population is on the move than ever before.  This course examines migration through a geographic lens seeking to elucidate the connections between theory and the changing and complex lived experiences of migrants.  We will consider different approaches to studying migration including primary migration theories, the analyses of major flows, and micro models of individual decision-making behavior, life course, and livelihood perspectives and the implications of these movements for both sending and receiving communities. This course is organized as a senior capstone seminar.  As such, we utilize readings, discussion, lectures, guest speakers and local events to enhance our understanding of the many dimensions and perspectives inherent in study of migratory movements, at scales ranging from global to local.  (4 credits)

Transportation Geography Seminar
A research seminar in which students conduct an individual inquiry into transportation geography, from issues of transport problems and planning to the social and environmental effects of transport. The course emphasizes current research and planning trends, and new approaches to a variety of traditional transportation problems. The course also exposes students to transportation issues and research in the Twin Cities through guest speakers and includes a local field trip. (4 credits)

Urban Geography Field Seminar
A research methods course in which students will conduct an individual inquiry in one of the following sub-fields of urban geography: spatial structure of urban areas; spatial interaction; problems of economic localization; and factors in intra-urban residential mobility. Students will be expected to participate in group projects which may produce either a written report or a map. The seminar focuses on topics of special interest to local communities and is part of Macalester's Civic Engagement initiatives. Note: Completion of GEOG 241 prior to registering for this seminar is strongly encouraged. (4 credits)

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor

GEOG 494 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

GEOG 611 - Independent Project

A limit of eight credits for independent projects may be applied toward the major. An independent study that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

GEOG 612 - Independent Project

A limit of eight credits for independent projects may be applied toward the major. An independent study that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

GEOG 613 - Independent Project

A limit of eight credits for independent projects may be applied toward the major. An independent study that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

GEOG 614 - Independent Project

A limit of eight credits for independent projects may be applied toward the major. An independent study that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

GEOG 621 - Internship

Students work with a Twin Cities community organization, agency or business, learning particular skills, factual knowledge about "real world" operations and interpersonal communications. Internships are individually designed around students' interests, college studies and career goals. Not more than eight credits for internships may be included toward the major. An internship that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography. Only offered as a pass/fail (S, SD, N) option.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office.

GEOG 622 - Internship

Students work with a Twin Cities community organization, agency or business, learning particular skills, factual knowledge about "real world" operations and interpersonal communications. Internships are individually designed around students' interests, college studies and career goals. Not more than eight credits for internships may be included toward the major. An internship that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography. Only offered as a pass/fail (S, SD, N) option.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office.

GEOG 623 - Internship

Students work with a Twin Cities community organization, agency or business, learning particular skills, factual knowledge about "real world" operations and interpersonal communications. Internships are individually designed around students' interests, college studies and career goals. Not more than eight credits for internships may be included toward the major. An internship that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography. Only offered as a pass/fail (S, SD, N) option.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office.

GEOG 624 - Internship

Students work with a Twin Cities community organization, agency or business, learning particular skills, factual knowledge about "real world" operations and interpersonal communications. Internships are individually designed around students' interests, college studies and career goals. Not more than eight credits for internships may be included toward the major. An internship that clearly focuses on GIS may be applied to the GIS minor in geography. Only offered as a pass/fail (S, SD, N) option.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office.

GEOG 631 - Preceptorship

A student works with a faculty member in the planning and teaching of a course.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs.

GEOG 632 - Preceptorship

A student works with a faculty member in the planning and teaching of a course.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs.

GEOG 633 - Preceptorship

A student works with a faculty member in the planning and teaching of a course.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs.

GEOG 634 - Preceptorship

A student works with a faculty member in the planning and teaching of a course.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs.

GEOG 641 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

GEOG 642 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

GEOG 643 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

GEOG 644 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project.

Frequency: Every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.