intelligence can be measured using the WAIS (Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale) neuropsychological test
for ages 16 and older. The WAIS measures memory,
knowledge, problem solving, calculation, abstract thinking, spatial
planning, and speed of mental processing. This
test is based on two scales: verbal and
General information and knowledge: 29 questions
Digit Span: Participants are asked
to repeat several sets of digits first in the same direction as said or
forwards, and then backwards. This is a test of immediate auditory
level of distraction.
Vocabulary: The participant is asked to define 35 words that get
progressively harder. This is a measure
of expressive word knowledge and correlates very highly with full scale
Arithmetic: The participant is asked
to solve 14 mental arithmetic brief story type problems. This tests
distractibility as well as numerical reasoning.
Comprehension: This asks the
participant to answer 16 questions which focus on issues of social
Similarities: Participants are asked to find reasons for why two
dissimilar items might actually be similar.
Performance WAIS scales
Picture Completion: The participant
is presented with 20 pictures that all have one specific piece missing.
This is a test of attention to fine detail.
Picture Arrangement: The participant
is shown 10 sets of small pictures that need to be arranged into a
sequence following pattern.
Block Design: The participant is
required to match sets of blocks together to match patterns on cards.
Digit Symbol: A code is given for
each number, and the participant is to copying the coding pattern
Object Assembly: The participant is
to assemble four small jig-saw type puzzles.
General intelligence is measured from the total of verbal intelligence
and performance intelligence scores to yield a full scale IQ. The
scores are tallied and the scores are classified
into different ranges. The following are the
classification of scores used by most neuropsychologists.
above Very Superior
and below Extremely Low
this test is used to determine vocational ability, intellectual ability
classroom, and to determine organic deficits. The
WAIS is the most widely used test for
Children’s intelligence can also be measured
using a similar test called the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children (WISC). The WISC can test
7-16. This test is used as a tool in
school placement, in determining the presence of a learning disability
or a developmental delay, in identifying giftedness, and in tracking
The test can also be used for children aged 3-7 years, and is called
the Wechsler Pre-school
and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI).