Glossary
Associative Long-Term Potentiation:  When weakly firing neurons are strenghtened by stronger neuron firing.

Biochemistry: The study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules.

Classical Conditioning:  Learning to pair a response that can already be activated to a different stimulus.

Cognition: The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses--resulting in a perception, sensation, notion, or intuition.

Drug: substance from the outside environment that alters normal biochemical functions in an organism.

Drug Effectiveness: The scope and intensity of effects resulting from administering a drug. 

Electromagnetic radiation / spectrum: A kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously / The range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.

Eugenics: Meaning "well born," eugenics was introduced in the 1880s by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin and the father of modern statistics. Galton pioneered the use of pedigrees, twin studies, and statistical correlation for the purpose of using that knowledge to improve "the breed of man." Eugenics is the theory that humans can influence our own evolution, through selective breeding, or genetic enhancement.  Usually, the word "eugenics" has a highly negative connotation (for good reason), implying government sponsorship of breeding programs and forced sterilization of "undesirables".

Hebb Rule:  The idea that weak neurons that fire at the same time as stronger neurons will gain strength.

Instrumental Learning:  (Operant Conditioning) It involves pairing a response and a stimulus using reinforcing or punishing stimuli.

Memory Trace: A permanent (but not unchangeable) biochemical change in the nervous system in response to an external stimuli; an engram. 

Neuroimaging: A clinical specialty concerned with producing images of the brain by noninvasive techniques (as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron-emission tomography) (Merriam-Webster).

Neuron: The basic functional unit of the nervous system; it is a type of cell that transmits signals to and from the brain.

Perception: The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses; a way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting something; a mental impression; the neurophysiological processes, including memory, by which an organism becomes aware of an interprets external stimuli.

Perceptual Learning:  Learning to recognize stimuli that have already been experienced.

Pharmacokinetics: To study of how drugs are taken, and how drugs move through the body.

Pharmacology: The study of how substances from the outside environment alter normal biochemical functions in an organism.

Phoneme: The smallest perceptually distinct unit of sound in a specified language that distinguishes one word from another. 

Photoreceptor: A structure in a living organism, esp. a sensory cell or sense organ, that responds to light falling on it. 

Ritual - A set of actions preformed mainly for their symbolic value. A religion or community often prescribes a ritual as part of their tradition.

Route of Administration: The means by which a drug enters the body.

Sensation: A physical feeling or perception resulting from something that happens to or comes into contact with the body. 

Sensitization: When repeated administration of a drug results in increasing effects at the same dose. 

Social Learning Theory:  Learning from your environment through association, reinforcement, and modeling.

Stimulus-Response Learning: Learning to perform a certain behavior in the presence of a specific stimulus.

Synapse: A junction between two neurons, consisting of a small gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of neurotransmitters.

Tolerance: When repeated administration of drugs results in diminishing effects at the same dose.