- An ellipsis consists of a space, three consecutive periods, and a space. No spaces between the periods.
- No spaces around an em dash (—): “He knew—or thought he knew—he was right.”
- Web use: Encode em dashes in HTML as —. Use spaces around dash.
- Longer than a hyphen but shorter than an em dash. Generally means “through.” Follow Chicago 6.83–6.86. Ex: 1979–83, chapters 2–4, the London–Paris train.
- Use the en dash for scores: “The Scots won 10–7.”
- Web use: Encode en dashes in HTML as –.
• Do not hyphenate.