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I. In-Text Citations
There are two methods to mark citations in the body of a CSE-style paper: citation-sequence format and name-year format. Check with your professor to determine the preferred method for a course or discipline.

A. Citation-Sequence Format
Use a superscript number (1) to mark each new citation in your paper. The numbers will correspond to a reference list at the end of the paper. Mark subsequent citations of the same source with the same superscript number as its first citation.

B. Name-Year Format
Place the author’s last name and the year of publication in parentheses at the end of each citation in the body of your paper. For example: (Jones 2007). If you’ve already used the author’s name in a signal phrase, list only the publication date in parentheses. For more than three authors, list the first author followed by the phrase and others.

For either format:

  • Use a signal phrase to introduce a quotation (e.g. According to Jones . . .)
  • When referring to an author in the body of your paper, use only the last name.

II. References
The list of references contains complete publication information for every source cited in your paper. For citation-sequence format, list the sources in the order in which they first appear in the text. For name-year format, list the entries in alphabetical order. Place the list on a separate page at the end of your paper, under the heading References. Single-space each entry, but double-space between entries. Indent the second and subsequent lines of each entry by five spaces (1/2 inch).

Include the following information for each entry: author name (last name, no comma, first and middle initials with no punctuation); title(s); publication information and date; and page numbers.) Note that if you are using the name-year format, the publication date is listed after the author’s name, rather than with the rest of the publication information.

Entries for Books
Book with one author:

1Kleinsmith LA. Principles of cancer biology. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings;
2006. 312 p.
Kleinsmith LA. 2006. Principles of cancer biology. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin
Cummings. 312 p.

Book with more than one author:
2Williams JG, Ceccarelli A, Spurr N. Genetic engineering. Oxford: Bios Scientific Publishers;
1993. 132 p.
Williams JG, Ceccarelli A, Spurr N. 1993. Genetic engineering. Oxford: Bios Scientific
Publishers. 132 p.

Selection or chapter in a book with an editor:
3DiLeo JH. Effects of early malnutrition and structure and function: the case for secondary
prevention. In: Weber R, editor. Handbook on learning disabilities: a prognosis for the
child, the adolescent, the adult. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1974. p 63-72.

DiLeo JH. 1974. Effects of early malnutrition and structure and function: the case for secondary
prevention. In: Weber R, editor. Handbook on learning disabilities: a prognosis for the
child, the adolescent, the adult. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. p 63-72.

Entries for Periodicals
For journal articles, abbreviate the journal title (e.g. College Math J in place of The College
Mathematics Journal). For newspaper and magazine articles, include section and column.

Article in a journal paginated by volume:
4Canterbury G. Metabolic adaptation and climactic constraints on winter bird distribution.
Ecology 2002; 83: 946-957.
Canterbury G. 2002. Metabolic adaptation and climactic constraints on winter bird distribution.
Ecology 83: 946-957.

Article in a journal paginated by issue:
5Ecker MW. Maximizing the probability of a big sweepstakes win. College Math J
2007:38(1): 32-36.
Ecker MW. 2007. Maximizing the probability of a big sweepstakes win. College Math J 38(1):
32-36.

Article in a newspaper:
6Cherney E. Several drugs show promise for Alzheimer’s. Wall Street Journal 2006 Oct 17;
Sect D: 1-2.
Cherney E. 2006 Oct 17. Several drugs show promise for Alzheimer’s. Wall Street Journal;
Sect D: 1-2.

Entries for Electronic Sources
In addition to author and/or title(s), whenever possible include date and place of publication or
copyright, date of last update, and date that you accessed the source. Always specify [Internet]
immediately after the title of the site, email message, or online database and provide a URL at
the end of each entry.

Web Site:
Human Anatomy Online [Internet]. Phoenix (AZ): Intellimed, Inc.; c1999-2004 [updated 2004
Dec 15; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.innerbody.com/index.html

III. Paper Format

  • A CSE-style title page includes (1) the paper title and author’s name centered one-third of
    the way down the page and (2) the course name, professor’s name, and submission date
    centered on the bottom third of the page.
  • All pages of the text, including the title page, should be numbered in the upper right-hand
    corner. Place your last name before page numbers.
  • Most CSE-style papers include a brief abstract (approx. 100 words). Place the abstract on a separate page immediately following the title page and under the heading Abstract. Double-space and do not indent the first line