Turabian

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I. In-Text Citations

In Turabian-style papers, superscript numbers (1) are placed at the end of sentences in which a source is used (quotations, paraphrasing, or any other attribution). The source of the citation is then cited in a correspondingly numbered note which provides extended information. These notes can appear as footnotes at the bottom of the page or endnotes in a list at the end of the paper. In most cases, you will also list sources at the end of the paper in a bibliography. The format for these notes is different from the format of bibliography entries.

Superscript numbers should appear at the end of the cited material after all punctuation marks, except when the note refers to material before a dash, in which case the superscript should appear after it. Don’t use more than one reference number at a time if a sentence cites multiple sources—instead, use one number and include all citations in a single note.

II. Foot- and Endnotes

If you choose to use Endnotes instead of footnotes, they should appear on a separate page entitled Notes. Both footnotes and endnotes are formatted as follows:

1. Single Author or Editor
Note Number. Author’s (or Editor’s) First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication), XX-XX.

2. Multiple Authors
Note Number. Author #1’s First and Last Names and Author #2’s First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication), XX-XX.

3. Journal Article
Note Number. Author’s First and Last Names, “Title of Article: Subtitle of Article,” Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication): XX-XX.

4. Chapter in an Edited Anthology
Note Number. Chapter Author’s First and Last Names. “Title of Chapter: Subtitle of Chapter,” in Title of Book: Subtitle of Book, ed. Editor’s First and Last Names (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication) XX-XX.

When a source has been used more than one, its appearance in subsequent notes can appear as follows:
Note Number. Author’s Last Name, Shortened Title of Book, XX.
Note Number. Author’s Last Name, “Article Title,” XX.

When a source is used two or more times in a row, its note appears as follows:
Note Number. Ibid., XX.

III. Bibliography
Your bibliography should alphabetically list every source cited in your text.. If this list includes two or more works by the same author, alphabetize them by title and replace the author’s name with a 3-em dash. Normal entries are patterned as follows:

1. Single Author or Editor
Author’s (or Editor’s) Last Name, Author’s (or Editor’s) First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

2. Multiple Authors
Author #1’s Last Name, Author #1’s First Name and Author #2’s First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

3. Journal Article
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article: Subtitle of Article.: Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication): XX-XX.

4. Chapter in an Edited Anthology
Chapter Author’s Last Name, Chapter Author’s First Name. “Title of Chapter: Subtitle of Chapter.” In Title of Book, Subtitle of Book, edited by Editor’s First and Last Names, XX-XX. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

IV. Paper Format
The paper should be double-spaced except for block quotations, table titles and figure captions. The bibliography and notes should be single-spaced internally but with a blank line between items. Block quotes should also be single-spaced, separated from the text by blank lines, and indented as far as the first line of a paragraph.

Number pages in the body of the paper and the back matter with arabic numerals, centered in the footer in the body and flush right in the header in the back matter. Titles should be centered and appear in all capital letters.

The title page should include the title a third of the way down the page, centered, with the subtitle on the next line. Your name should be several lines below it, with the course title and date if they are required.