Student Handbook

Alcohol and Illegal Drugs Policy (revised 5/10)

Macalester is dedicated to preparing and educating students to become citizens on a world stage. Through this policy the college intends to promote personal responsibility and to foster a strong and welcoming campus community. Macalester College hopes to encourage safe, responsible, and lawful actions. This policy exists within the context of all current local, state, and federal laws. The college is concerned with the effect illicit drug use and alcohol abuse can have both on an individual and on the campus community. The following policy intends to demonstrate students’ rights and responsibilities in regards to illicit drugs and the use of alcohol on campus, off campus, and at college-sponsored events. Community members must at all times demonstrate respect for others and are responsible for their actions.

Alcohol Policy
Macalester College prohibits the unlawful possession, use, production and distribution of alcohol. This policy applies to all activities sponsored by the College whether on College-owned property and residences or at other locations. The College expects that students, faculty, staff members and guests of the College community will conduct themselves in a responsible manner that shows respect for others and the community at large. As part of the larger community, Macalester College is subject to and abides by federal, state and local laws. The use of alcoholic beverages should not interfere with the educational goals academic goals and maintenance of a healthy environment in the campus community.
General Regulations

  • Alcoholic beverages may not be served to or consumed by individuals under the legal drinking age of 21.
  • Students found with alcohol who are under 21 years of age will be required to pour out the alcohol in the presence of a staff member.
  • Students of legal age who use alcohol must do so in a way that does not compromise the rights and safety of others.
  • The use of alcohol may not:
    • disrupt the community standards of the residence hall environment
    • create a potentially hazardous environment
    • violate applicable federal and state laws, local ordinances
  • Being severely intoxicated (regardless of age) is in violation of College policy.
  • The possession of open containers of alcohol and the consumption of alcohol are confined to student rooms and suites. Open containers of alcohol are prohibited outdoors and in common areas.
  • Possession of empty alcohol containers may result in a documented policy violation.
  • Alcohol cannot be consumed in public spaces without a permit regardless of age.
  • Kegs of beer, any forms of common source alcohol and alcohol in excess are prohibited in any residence hall space. Possession of a keg of alcohol may result in suspension from residential facilities.
  • Of age students who choose to consume alcohol with or in the presence of underage students assume additional responsibility for the safety and well being of their guests.
  • Students regardless of age may be asked to dispose of alcohol to help calm and disburse disruptive situations.
  • Violation of College policies regarding the improper use, distribution or possession of alcohol will result in sanctions ranging from warning or probation through temporary or permanent separation from the College and may also include referral to civil authorities for prosecution. The College may require chemical assessment and/or treatment, attendance at health education informational sessions, in addition to disciplinary sanctions which may be imposed.  Students will be responsible for costs associated with such programs.

 Good Samaritan Policy
All members of the campus community are encouraged to immediately seek medical or security assistance for students whose health and well-being may be at risk due to the over-consumption of alcohol and/or drugs. Taking responsibility for helping a student in need will always be viewed positively in any post-incident follow-up, including those incidents where the “Good Samaritan” and/or the person needing emergency assistance may have violated the college policy(s).

 Illegal Drug Policy

  • Macalester College prohibits the unlawful possession, use, sale, distribution, cultivation or manufacture of illicit drugs and drug related paraphernalia. This includes but is not limited to water pipes and bongs.
  • The use of any substance which creates an odor that may be confused with illegal substances is prohibited. This includes, but is not limited to, odors that smell like marijuana.
  • Students found responsible for a second offense of illegal drugs may be suspended from the residence halls.
  • Confiscated items will not be returned to students or their guests if they are found to violate college policy or state/federal law.
  • Students seeking information or help with a drug related problem are encouraged to consult with Health and Wellness Center, Residential Life or the Student Affairs Office.
  • Violation of College policies regarding the use, distribution or possession of unlawful drugs, and drug related paraphernalia will result in sanctions ranging from warning or probation through temporary or permanent separation from the College and may also include referral to civil authorities for prosecution. The College may require chemical assessment and/or treatment, attendance at health education informational sessions, in addition to disciplinary sanctions which may be imposed. Students will be responsible for costs associated with such treatment.

Federal Student Aid Penalities for Drug Convictions

The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 include a new student eligibility provision. It provides that a student is ineligible for federal student aid if convicted, under federal or state law, of any offense involving the possession or sale of a controlled substance while enrolled and receiving federal financial aid. Federal aid can be grants, student loans and/or college student employment. The period of ineligibility begins on the date of conviction and lasts until the end of a statutorily specified period. A student may regain eligibility early by completing a drug rehabilitation program or if the conviction is overturned.

The chart below illustrates the period of ineligibility for financial aid, depending on whether the conviction was for sale or possession and whether the student had previous offenses.

  Possession of Illegal Drugs Sale of Illegal Drugs
1st Offense 1 yr. from date of conviction 2 yrs. from date of conviction
2nd Offense 2 yrs. from date of conviction Indefinite Period
3rd Offense Indefinite Period  

If convicted of both possessing and selling illegal drugs, the student will be ineligible for the longer period of conviction.

For information on how a drug conviction impacts financial aid, refer to the frequently asked question section of the FAFSA website. To report a drug conviction contact the Financial Aid Office.

Policies for Hosting Events with Alcohol

(Students who reside on campus also see residence hall policies - Hosting Guests with Alcohol in Rooms)

  • Any event with alcohol present requires a completed Alcohol Approval Request Form submitted to the Reservations Office for approval no later than 3 weeks prior to the event. This policy includes the service wine and/or beer at a reception or dinner. Event planners should consult with the Reservations Office to determine the need for a Certificate of Insurance indemnifying Macalester College or to get referrals for 3rd party vendors. Student sponsored events must be approved first by a member of the Campus Programs staff before submission to the Reservations Office.
  • State law prohibits open containers on public rights-of-ways (i.e., streets, sidewalks, public areas in buildings, etc.). Alcohol must be contained in a designated serving and consumption area. The Campus Center Atrium, Art Gallery Hallways, Olin-Rice Smail Gallery, Leonard Center Atrium, IGC Atrium or any other publicly used space are not permissible locations for the service of alcohol unless the entire building/space is reserved for the event or alcohol is only served and consumed in a controlled area not accessible to the public or those under 21. Bon Appetite may serve wine and/or beer at a function in these spaces. For outdoor events, the serving area must be contained within a fenced-in and controlled area. 
  • Events which require a license for the sale of alcohol or any event with an estimated attendance of 100 or more people will require additional planning and appropriate forms must be submitted nine (9) weeks prior to the event.  
  • Only beer and/or wine may be served on campus. 
  • Student Activity Fee money may not be used to purchase alcohol. 
  • Individuals are not allowed to bring alcohol to an event. 
  • Only official College sponsored events designated by the Office of Student Affairs or Special Events may advertise the presence of alcohol.
  • Attendance at campus events where alcohol is being served is limited Macalester community members or their invited guests.
  • Alcoholic beverages cannot be sold without a license issued by the St. Paul office of License, Inspection and Environmental Protection. Application forms are available from the Reservations Office and must be approved first by the Director of the Campus Center. Staff events must be approved first by the Director of the Campus Center. Indirect distribution of alcohol through the sale of admission tickets, donations, etc. are considered methods of selling alcohol and require a license from the City of St. Paul. 
  • Event sponsors must provide snacks and equal amounts of non-alcoholic beverages when alcohol is being served.
  • The college does not accept sponsorship of campus events by the alcohol beverage industry.
  • Events may require security officers at the determination of the Director of Campus Center. Cost for the officers is the responsibility of the sponsoring Macalester department or recognized student organization. 
  • At least one faculty or staff person is required to attend an event where alcohol is being served. 
  • The distribution of alcohol will cease no later than 45 minutes prior to event's end time or before 12:30 a.m.

Education, Counseling, and Treatment Resources

Most adults who drink alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, or liquor) consume safe and healthy amounts. For others, unsafe drinking patterns increase their risk for injury, illness or future alcohol problems. Alcohol or other drug problems come in many forms. You may find yourself wondering or worrying about your own personal use or that of a family member or friend.

Macalester Health Services provides professional education, assistance, and referral for students concerned about their own or others’ alcohol or other drug use. The Health Promotion Office offers information, education, and training about alcohol/tobacco use and other drug abuse. Students who are questioning their own patterns of alcohol or other drug use may seek assistance from the staff in the Health and Wellness Center. In addition, staff can help students who are concerned about another’s substance use patterns.

 Alcohol and Illegal Drug Response Guidelines

As part of the Student Conduct process students may be assigned sanctions for violations involving alcohol or other drugs. The chart below is guideline to assist Hearing Officers in decision-making. Every conduct situation involves a multitude of factors that may influence the outcome of a particular case.
In the event a student does not follow through with an educational or assessment sanction conducted by a College staff member, they may be required to complete comparative activity with an off campus provider at their own expense.

 

Minor

Significant

Severe

First Offense

  • Letter of warning
  • Meet with Hearing Officer
  • E-Chug/E-Toke
  • Any from minor
  • Alcohol or marijuana education class
  • Residence Hall Probation
  • Other educational sanctions
  • Individual meeting with Health & Wellness staff
  • Disciplinary Probation
  • Room Change
  • Any from Significant

Second Offense

  • Meet with Hearing Officer or Board
  • E-Chug/E-Toke
  • Alcohol or Marijuana Education Class
  • Residence Hall Probation
  • Individual meeting wiht Health & Wellness staff
  • Disciplinary Probation
  • Any from Minor
  • Suspension or Expulsion from hall
  • Assessment with Chemical Health Specialist
  • Any from Significant
  • Room Change

Third Offense

  • Meet with Hearing Officer or Board
  • Alcohol or Marijuana Education Class
  • Residence Hall Probation
  • Disciplinary Probation
  • Room Change
  • Individual meeting with Health & Wellness Staff
  • Suspension or Expulsion from hall
  • Any from Minor
  • Assessment with Chemical Health Specialist
  • Assessment with Chemical Health Spec.
  • Suspension or Expulsion from College
  • Any from Significant

These are based on alcohol and illegal drugs. Other policy violations such as vandalism, non-compliance, noise etc. could change the sanction which is assigned.

Appendix:

ALCOHOL LAWS

Local Laws
The City of St. Paul and the City of Minneapolis have an ordinance prohibiting the consumption of, or possession of an open container containing, an alcoholic beverage in any public place or on private property without the owner's permission.

Minnesota State Laws
Liquor Control Violations: It is a misdemeanor if a person under 21 consumes alcohol, attempts to purchase alcohol, possesses alcohol with intent to consume, enters a licensed establishment or municipal liquor store for the purpose of purchasing or being served alcohol, or misrepresents his or her age.  A minimum fine of $100 must be assessed against a person under the age of 21 years who consumes alcohol.

It is a gross misdemeanor to give or sell alcohol to a person under the age of 21, or to procure alcohol for an obviously intoxicated person. It is also a gross misdemeanor to induce a person under the age of 21 to purchase alcohol, or to knowingly permit a person under 21 to use one's driver’s license or other identification for the purpose of procuring alcohol.  A 90-day suspension of driving privileges will be imposed on any person a) who is under the age of 21 years and is convicted of attempting to or purchasing alcohol with a driver’s license or b) who lends a driver’s license to someone under 21 to use to purchase alcohol.

A person under the age of 21 years and is convicted of consuming any amount of alcohol while operating a motor vehicle will have their driver’s license revoked for 30 days first offense and 180 days for a repeat offense.  A minimum fine of $100 will be assessed.

Driving While Impaired (DWI) Violations:  It is a crime for any person to drive, operate or be in physical control of a motor vehicle while the person is under the influence of alcohol, a controlled or hazardous substance.   DWI penalties are based on the presence of aggravating factors.  Possible sentences include driver license revocation, fines, imprisonment, and participation in treatment programs.  If a DWI results in death or injury, the driver can be convicted of manslaughter or murder.

Adult Providers of Alcohol to Youth Violations:  Tough criminal penalties are imposed on adults (those 21 years and older) who provide alcohol to youth in cases that lead to death or great bodily harm.  Anyone over 21 who knowingly serves alcohol to someone under 21 may be held civilly liable for any damages subsequently caused by the person under 21.

DRUG LAWS
Minnesota State Laws:  The following chart shows the degrees of selected drug crimes in Minnesota and the sentencing limits for each.   In addition,

It is a petty misdemeanor for persons under the age of 18 to possess, use or purchase tobacco products.   Purchasing tobacco with fake identification is a crime. 

Possession of 42.5 grams or less of marijuana, without remuneration, is a petty misdemeanor punishable by a fine of up to $200 and required attendance at an approved drug education program.  Possession of more than 1.4 grams of marijuana in an automobile is a misdemeanor.

Under Minnesota law, the definition of cocaine includes powered cocaine and crack. 
In Minnesota, unlawful possession or sale of any amount of anabolic steroids is a felony.


Under Minnesota Law


Controlled Substances and Tobacco: Crimes and Penalties

 

Scale

Possession

Penalty

Guidelines

First Degree

10+ grams cocaine; heroin; or methamphetamine; 50+ grams of other narcotic drug; 50+ grams or 200+ dosages units amphetamine; phencyclidine; or hallucinogens; 50+ kilos marijuana or 25 kilos in a school zone; park zone; or public housing zone, or drug treatment facility; the manufacture of any amount of methamphetamine.

25+ grams cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine; 500+ grams of other narcotic drugs; 500+ grams or 500+ dosage units amphetamine, phencyclidine, or hallucinogens; 100+ kilos marijuana.

0-30 yrs and/or up to $1 million fine.
4-40 yrs and/or up to $1 million fine for 2nd or subsequent controlled substance offense.

Imprisonment for 86 to 158 months; minimum $300,000 fine.

Second Degree

3+ grams cocaine, heroine, or methamphetamine; 10+ grams of other narcotic drugs; 10+ grams or 50 dosage units amphetamine, phencyclidine, or hallucinogens; 25+ kilos marijuana; any amount of cocaine, heroine, or any other Schedule I or II narcotic drug, LSD, 3, 4-methlenedioxyamethamphetamine (MDA), or 3, 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy), amphetamine, or methamphetamine, or 5+ kilos of marijuana, in a school zone; park zone; or public housing zone or  drug treatment facility, any Schedule I or II narcotic drug to a person under 18 or employment of a person under 18 to sell the same.

6+ grams cocaine, heroine, or methamphetamine; 50+ grams of other narcotic drugs; 50+ grams or 100+ dosage units amphetamine, phencyclidine, or hallucinogen; 50+ kilos marijuana.

0-25 yrs and/or up to $500,000 fine.
3-40 yrs and/or up to $500,000 fine for 2nd or subsequent controlled substance offense.

Imprisonment for 48 to 108 months; minimum $150,000 fine.

Third Degree

Any amount of cocaine, heroine, or narcotic drug; 10+ dosage units phencyclidine or hallucinogen; 5+ kilos marijuana; sale of any Schedule I, II, or III drug (except Schedule I or II narcotic drug) to a person under 18 or employment of person under 18 to sell the same.

3+ grams cocaine, heroine, methamphetamine; 10+ grams or 50+ dosage units of other narcotic drug; 10+ kilos marijuana; any amount of cocaine, heroine, or other Schedule I or II narcotic drug, methamphetamine, or amphetamine, or 5+ doses of LSD, 3, 4-methlenedioxyamphetamine, or 3, 4-methylenedioxymethampdetamine  in a school zone; park zone; or public housing zone, or drug facility.

0-20 yrs and/or up to $250,000 fine.

2-30 yrs and/or up to $250,000 fine for 2nd or subsequent controlled substance offense.

Probation or imprisonment for 39-57 months; minimum $75,000 fine.

Fourth Degree

Any amount of cocaine, heroine, methamphetamine, or Schedule I, II, or III drug (except marijuana); any amount of marijuana in a school zone; park zone; or public housing zone or drug facility; or any Schedule IV or V drug to a person under 18 or conspiracy with or employment of a person under 18 to sell the same.

10+ dosage units of phencyclidine or hallucinogen, or any Schedule I, II, or III (except marijuana) with intent to sell.

0-15 yrs and/or up to $100,000 fine.
1-30 yrs and/or up to $100,000 fine for 2nd or subsequent controlled substance offense

Probation or imprisonment for 24-30 months; minimum $30,000 fine.

Fifth Degree

Any amount of marijuana or any Schedule IV drug.

Any amount of Schedule I, II, III, or IV drugs (except 42.5 grams or less of marijuana); any prescription drug obtained through false pretenses or forgery.

0-5 yrs and/or up to $10,000 fine.
6 months to 10 yrs and/or up to $20,000 fine for 2nd or subsequent controlled substance offense.

Probation or imprisonment for 21 months; minimum $3,000 fine.

Under Federal Law

Controlled Substances and Tobacco: Crimes and Penalties

IN ADDITION to the penalties for selected controlled substances crimes listed elsewhere on this page, Federal law provides for: (1) forfeiture of personal and real property used to possess, facilitate possession, manufacture, distribute and/or possession with intent to manufacture or distribute controlled  substance if that offense is punishable by more than one year imprisonment; (2) forfeiture of vehicles, boats, aircraft or any other conveyance used to transport or conceal a controlled substance; (3) a civil fine up to $10,000 (for possession of a personal use amount); (4) denial of Federal benefits, such as student loans, grants, contracts, and professional and commercial licenses, up to 1 year for first offense, up to 5 years for second and subsequent offenses; (5) ineligibility to receive or purchase a firearm; and (6) revocation of certain Federal licenses and benefits (e.g. pilot licenses, public housing tenancy, etc.), as determined by individual Federal agencies. Federal law provides for penalties of up to 20 years in prison for possession or distribution of selected chemical reagents and precursors with intent or reasonable cause to believe they will be used to make methamphetamine.

Possession

Penalty

50 grams or more methamphetamine or
500 grams or more methamphetamine mixture,
1 kilogram or more heroine mixture,
5 kilogram or more cocaine mixture,
50 grams or more cocaine base (crack) mixture,
100 grams or more PCP or
1 kilo gram or more PCP mixture,
10 grams or more LSD mixture,
400 grams or more fentanyl mixture,
100 grams or more fentanyl analogue mixture,
1000 kilograms or more marijuana mixture,
1000 or more marijuana plants.

First Offense: 10 years to life, 10 year mandatory minimum; if death or serious injury, 20 year minimum; up to $4 million fine individual, $10 million other than individual.
Second Offense: 20 years to life, 20 year mandatory minimum; if death or serious injury, not less than life; up to $8 million fine individual; $20 million other than individual.

5-49 grams methamphetamine or
50-499 grams methamphetamine  mixture,
100-999 grams heroine mixture,
500-499 grams cocaine mixture,
5-49 grams cocaine base (crack) mixture,
10-99 grams PCP pr 100-999 grams PCP mixture,
1-9 grams LSD mixture,
40-399 grams fentanyl mixture,
10-99 grams fentanyl analogue mixture,
100-999 kilograms marijuana mixture,
100-999 marijuana plants.

First Offense: 5 years to 40 years, 5 year mandatory minimum; if death or serious injury, 20 year minimum; up to $2 million fine individual, $5 million other than individual.
Second Offense: 10 years to life, 10 year mandatory minimum; if death or serious injury, not less than life; up to $4 million fine individual, $10 million other than individual.

Any amount of other Schedule I or Schedule II Controlled Substances,
50 kilograms marijuana mixture,
50-99 marijuana plants,
Or 1 gram or more flunitrazepam (Rohypnol®)
Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB),
Oxycodone (OxyContin)
3, 4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) or MDMA, Paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA).

First Offense: 0 to 20 years; if death or serious injury, 20 year mandatory minimum, not more than life; up to $1 million fine individual, $5 million other than individual.
Second Offense: 0 to 30 years; if death or serious injury, not less than life; up to $2 million fine individual, $10 million other than individual.

Any amount of Schedule III Controlled Substances,
less than 50 kilograms marijuana mixture,
10 kilograms hashish or more,
1 kilogram hashish oil or more,
Or 30-999 milligrams flunitrazepam (Rohypnol®), Ketamine.

First Offense: 0 to 5 years; up to $250,000 fine individual, $1 million other than individual.
Second Offense: 0 to 10 years; up to $500,000 fine individual, $2 million other than individual.

Any amount of Schedule IV Controlled Substances.

First Offense: 0 to 3 years; up to $250,000 fine individual, $1 million other than individual.
Second Offense: 0 to 6 years; up to $500,000 fine individual, $2 million other than individual.

Federal penalties for controlled substances violation are also for the manufacture, distribution and possession with intent to manufacture or distribute, controlled substances.

 

Any amount of Schedule V Controlled Substances.

First Offense: 0 to 1 year; up to $100,000 fine individual, $250,000 other than individual.
Second Offense: 0 to 2 years; up to $200,000 fine individual, $500,000 other than individual.

Health Risks Associated With Use/Abuse of Alcohol, Tobacco, or Other Drugs
Alcohol

Drug Type

Ethanol, Ethyl, Booze, Cocktails, Brew, Liquor, Juice, Drink

The Facts

Alcohol is a drug. Alcohol acts as a central nervous system depressant. It is a colorless, inflammable, and intoxicating liquid absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the small intestine. Alcohol is the psychoactive ingredient in wine, beer, and distilled liquor. Several factors influence the effects of alcohol, including the amount of alcohol consumed, the rate at which it is consumed, the presence of food in the stomach during consumption, and the individual's sex, weight, mood and previous experience with the drug. Alcohol can be very damaging when used in large amounts over a long period of time, or when drunk heavily in a short period of time (“binge” drinking). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome may result from a woman using alcohol at the time of unprotected sexual intercourse or during pregnancy.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Flushing (skin appears to be reddish); dulling of senses; staggering; double vision; unconsciousness; dizziness; sudden mood changes; slurred speech; impaired coordination, reflexes, memory, and judgment; clammy, cold skin; decreased body temperature; and impaired decision making.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Malnutrition; lowered resistance to disease; irreversible brain or nervous system damage; gastrointestinal irritation; damage to liver, heart, and pancreas; addiction/alcoholism; coma; and death from overdose, injury, or accident.


Marijuana

Drug Type

Cannabis Sativa, Grass, Pot, Weed, Joint, Reefer, Acapulco Gold, Smoke, Mary Jane, Dope, Sinsemilla

The Facts

Marijuana is the common name for the hemp plant. Cannabis sativa. A marijuana cigarette (joint) is composed of dried particles from the hemp plant. The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in a joint is what affects the user. THC is used medically as an antinauseant for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Today's marijuana is more potent than the pot of the 1960's. Hashish or hashish oil are derivatives from the Cannabis sativa plant and produce similar effects as marijuana.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Increased heart and pulse rate; bloodshot eyes; increased appetite; dryness in the mouth and throat; hallucinations, paranoia, or panic; impaired memory; an altered sense of time; and decreased concentration, reaction time and coordination.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Damage to heart, lungs, brain and nerve cells; lung cancer; memory disorders; interference with psychological maturation; temporary loss of fertility in both women and men; psychological dependence; and bronchitis, infections, colds, and other viruses.


Cocaine/Crack

Drug Type

Coke, Snow, Toot, White Lady, Flake, Blow, Big C, Snowbirds, Lady, Nose Candy, Rock, Readyrock

The Facts

Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the South American coca plant. Cocaine is a white powder that can be inhaled, injected, or smoked (free based). Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system, increasing alertness and activity. In order to extend a seller's supply and profits, cocaine sold on the streets is often mixed with other substances such as sugar, salt, cornstarch, or possibly other drugs. Its unknown purity content increases the dangers of using cocaine. Cocaine is an addictive drug. Initially, users of cocaine experience a “high.” But when the “high” wears off a devastating “low” follows. To avoid this “low” users are often compelled to use more.
Crack is a smokeable form of cocaine. Crack is extremely addictive. Smoking crack provides intensified cocaine effects because higher doses of the drug reach the brain with more immediacy.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Euphoria; dilated pupils; narrowing of blood vessels; increased blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and body temperature; decreased appetite; insomnia; runny nose; violent, erratic, or paranoid behavior; sweating; anxiety; and tremors.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Malnutrition, respiratory problems; addiction; stroke; liver problems; seizures; heart and respiratory failure; psychosis; coma; convulsions; and sexual dysfunction.
For users who share or use unsterile needles to inject cocaine; tetanus, hepatitis, tuberculosis, or HIV/AIDS. For pregnant women: miscarriage, stillbirths, premature labor or delivery, or hemorrhaging. Babies exposed to cocaine (cocaine babies) may be irritable and unresponsive. Cocaine babies may suffer strokes, have malformed kidneys and genitals, and may be at risk for seizures or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).


Tobacco

Drug Type

Cigarettes, cigars, chew, snuff

The Facts

Tobacco is used in a variety of ways. It is smoked through pipes, cigars and cigarettes. Tobacco is also chewed and inhaled in the form of snuff. Nicotine is the active ingredient in all forms of tobacco. Nicotine stimulates the heart and central nervous system. Nicotine is just as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Smoking costs $65 billion per year in health care costs and lost productivity. In Minnesota, it is a petty misdemeanor for persons under the age of 18 to possess, use or purchase tobacco products. Local ordinances may increase these offenses to misdemeanors, with fines up to $700 and jail time up to 90 days. Furnishing tobacco to a minor is also a misdemeanor. It is a gross misdemeanor, punishable by up to one year in jail and a $3,000 fine, to sell tobacco products to people under the age of 18.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Flushing; nausea; gagging; vomiting; coughing; sweating; abdominal cramps; watering eyes; dizziness; bad breath; increased heart rate and blood pressure; dilated pupils, increased salivations; and decreased appetite.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Health risks of smoking tobacco include: arteriosclerosis, emphysema, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, heart disease, and lung cancer.
Health risks of chewing or inhaling tobacco include: oral cancer, decreased taste sensation and ability to smell, and dental problems.


Caffeine

Drug Type

Caffeine is found in many sources including: coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, aspirin, nonprescription cough and cold remedies, diet pills, nonprescription stimulants that aid in alertness, and some street drugs.

The Facts

Caffeine may be the world's most popular legal drug. It is a white, bitter, crystal-like substance. Physical dependence may result from chronic consumption of moderately high daily doses of caffeine. Regular users of caffeine may find that an abrupt stop in use can cause withdrawal symptoms including: a severe headache, irritability, nervousness and restlessness.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Increased metabolism; alertness; headache; nausea; decreased appetite; increased body temperature and blood pressure; irritability; sleeplessness; nervousness; frequent urination; boredom; tremors; nausea; impaired coordination; and anxiety.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Diarrhea; abnormal heart rate; and depression. Poisonous doses of caffeine rarely occur but may result in convulsions, respiratory arrest and death.


Steroids

Drug Type

Anabolic-Androgenic (roids, juice, d-ball)

The Facts

Steroids may contribute to increases in body weight and muscular strength. The acceleration of physical development is what makes steroids appealing to athletes and young adults. Anabolic-Androgenic steroids are chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone. Anabolic means to build up the muscles and other tissues of the body. Androgenic refers to the development of male sex characteristics. Steroids are injected directly into the muscle or taken orally. In Minnesota, unlawful possession or sale of any amount of anabolic steroids is a felony.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Sudden increase in muscle and weight; increase in aggression and combativeness; violence; hallucinations; depression; jaundice; purple or red spots on body, inside mouth, or nose; swelling of feet or lower legs (edema); tremors; and bad breath. For women: breast reduction, enlarged clitoris, facial hair, baldness, and deepened voice. For men: enlarged nipples and breasts, testicle reduction, enlarged prostate, and baldness.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

High blood pressure; liver and kidney damage; heart disease, increased risk of injury to ligaments and tendons; bowel and urinary problems; gallstones and kidney stones; and liver cancer. For men: impotence, sterility, and prostate cancer. For women: menstrual problems and sterility. For users who share or use unsterile needles to inject steroids: hepatitis, tetanus, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.
Like the abuse of all drugs, the health risks of using steroids far outweigh the perceived benefits.


Solvents-Inhalants

Drug Type

Many people classify solvents-inhalants as drugs. However, the solvents-inhalants most abused are toxic chemicals found in common household and industrial products.
The most frequently abused solvents-inhalants are: toluene, acetone, methyl and ethyl ketones, benzene, xylene, hexane, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, the freons, nitrous oxide, and the volatile nitrates.

The Facts

Inhalants are toxic chemicals that are sniffed or huffed (inhaling fumes through the mouth) in order to produce mood-altering effects. Solvents are the chemicals abused as inhalants. Solvents-inhalants act as depressants and slow down the body's functions.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Lightheadedness; feelings of euphoria; excitability; loss of appetite; forgetfulness; weight loss; sneezing; coughing; headache; nausea and vomiting; bad breath; red eyes; sores on noses and mouth; delayed reflexes; decreased blood pressure; flushing; dizziness; and violence.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Heart failure; respiratory arrest; liver and brain damage; suffocation; unconsciousness; seizures; and damage to the nervous system and body tissues. “Sudden Sniffing Death” may also result. This occurs because solvents cause abnormal pumping of the heart that can lead to heart failure.


Depressants

Drug Type

Alcohol (Brew, Juice, Liquor)
Barbiturates (Downers, Barbs)
Benzodiazepines (Valium, Librium, Tranquilizers)
Chloral Hydrate Noctec (Knock Out, Mickey Finn)
Glutethimide (Doriden)
Methaqualone (Quaalude, Ludes)
Other Depressants (Equanil, Miltown, Noludar, Placidyl, Valmid).
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol, Roche Pills, Date Rape Drug, R2, Mexican Valium)

The Facts

Depressants slow down the central nervous system by relaxing muscles, calming nerves, and producing sleep. Alcohol is a depressant. Depressants are composed of sedative-hypnotic and tranquilizer drugs. Depressants are addictive. Users of depressants develop a tolerance to the drugs, meaning larger doses must be taken each time to produce the same effect. Flunitrazepam is a Benzodiazepine ten times stronger than Valium that is long acting and produces marked memory loss.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Relaxation and drowsiness; lack of concentration; disorientation; loss of inhibitions; lack of coordination; dilated pupils; slurred speech; weak and rapid pulse; distorted vision; low blood pressure; shallow breathing; staggering; clammy skin; fever; sweating; stomach cramps; hallucinations; tremors; and delirium.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Liver damage; convulsions; addiction with severe withdrawal symptoms; and coma.


Hallucinogens

Drug Type

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
Phencyclidine (PCP, Angel Dust)
Mescaline and Peyote (Mexc, Buttons, Cactus)
Psilocybin (Mushrooms)
Amphetamine Variants (MDMA/Ecstacy, MDA/Love Drug, TMA, DOM, DOB, PMA, STP, 2.5-DMA)
Phencyclidine Analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP)
Other Hallucinogens (Bufotenine, Ibogaine, DMT, DET, Psilocyn)

The Facts

Hallucinogens are psychedelic, mind-altering drugs that affect a person's perception, feelings, thinking, self-awareness, and emotions. A “bad trip” may result in the user experiencing panic, confusion, paranoia, anxiety, unpleasant sensory images, feelings of helplessness, and loss of control. “Flashback” is a reoccurrence of the original drug experience without taking the drug again.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Dilated pupils; increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure; sweating; loss of appetite; sleeplessness; dry mouth; tremors; hallucinations; disorientation; confusion; paranoia; violence; euphoria; anxiety; panic; and distorted perception of time, space and reality.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Agitation; extreme hyperactivity; psychosis; convulsions; mental or emotional problems.

 


Narcotics

Drug Type

Codeine (School Boy)
Heroin (H. Harry, Junk, Brown Sugar, Smack)
Hydromorphone (Lords)
Meperidine (Doctors)
Methadone (Dollies, Methadose)
Morphine (Morpho, Miss Emma)
Opium (Dovers Powder)
Other Narcotics (Percodan, Talwin2, Lomotil, Darvon, Numorphan, Percocet, Tylox, Tussionex, Fentanyl)

The Facts

Narcotics are composed of opiates and synthetic drugs. Opiates are derived from the seed of the pod of the Asian poppy. Synthetic drugs called opiods are chemically developed to produce the effects of opiates. Initially, narcotics stimulate the higher centers of the brain, but then slow down the activity of the central nervous system. Narcotics relieve pain and induce sleep. Narcotics, such as Heroin, are often diluted with other substances (i.e. water, sugar) and injected. Other narcotics are taken orally or inhaled. Narcotics are extremely addictive. Users of narcotics develop a tolerance to the drugs, meaning larger doses must be taken each time to produce the same effect.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Euphoria; restlessness and lack of motivation; drowsiness; lethargy; decreased pulse rate; constricted pupils; flushing (skin appears to be reddish); constipation; nausea and vomiting; needle marks on extremities; skin abscesses at injection sites; shallow breathing; watery eyes; and itching.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Pulmonary edema; respiratory arrest; convulsions, addiction, and coma.
For users who share or use unsterile needles to inject narcotics: tetanus, hepatitis, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.


Stimulants

Drug Type

Amphetamines (Uppers, Pep Pills)
Cocaine (Coke, Flake, Snow)
Crack (Rock)
Methamphetamines (Ice, Crank, Crystal)
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Phenmetrazine (Preludin, Preludes)
Other Stimulants (Adipex, Cylert, Didrex, Ionamin, Melfiat, Plegine, Sanorex, Tenuate, Tepanil, Prelu-2)

The Facts

Stimulants activate the central nervous system, increasing alertness and activity. Users of stimulants develop a tolerance, meaning larger doses must be taken to get the same effect. Stimulants are psychologically addictive.

Possible Signs of Use/Abuse

Increased alertness; excessive activity; agitation; euphoria; excitability/increased pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature; insomnia; loss of appetite; sweating; dry mouth and lips; bad breath; disorientation; apathy; hallucinations; irritability; and nervousness.

Possible Health Risks of Use/ Abuse

Headaches; depression; malnutrition; hypertension; psychosis; cardiac arrest; damage to the brain and lungs; convulsions; and coma.

Compliance with the Drug Free Schools/and Campuses Act
Macalester College is committed to complying with the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act and the Drug Free Workplace Act. The requirements for compliance with the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act of 1989 are addressed in the alcohol policy section of the student, staff, and faculty handbooks. The College conducts biennial reviews of its alcohol and drug program to determine its effectiveness, implement needed changes, and insure that disciplinary sanctions are consistently enforced.

Additional requirements for compliance with the Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988 state that employees of the College are required to report to work on time and in appropriate mental and physical condition for work and to remain in that condition during the work shift. Employees must, as a condition of employment, abide by the terms of this policy and report any criminal convictions under a criminal drug statute for violations occurring on or off campus premises while conducting college business. A report of conviction must be made within five days of conviction.

Within thirty days after receiving notification that an employee has been convicted under a criminal drug statute for violation occurring in the workplace, Macalester will either take disciplinary action against the employee (up to and including termination) or will require the employee to satisfactorily participate in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program approved for such purposes by federal, state or local health, law enforcement or appropriate agency.