Mark A. Davis

Professor of Biology
Macalester College
email: davis@macalester.edu

FIELD BOTANY


Davis Home Page


FIELD BOTANY

Syllabus Taxonomic Lists Collection Final Project UFIs(Useful Flyers of Information)

SYLLABUS                  
Fall 2004
Professor Mark Davis                            
(Office: Rice 104; 696-6102)
Office Hours - M: 1:30-3:00 p.m.
W: 1:30-3:00 p.m.

    GENERAL INFORMATION

Biology 345-01 (02):  (Field Botany) is a course in plant taxonomy, plant geography, and plant ecology.  Students will learn the principles of plant classification and, through first hand experience, the techniques of plant identification, collection, and preservation.  Students also will be introduced to the fields of plant geography and plant ecology.  Particular attention will be given to the taxonomy, geography, and ecology of plants growing in the North Central United States.  Weekly field trips to nearby habitats will enable students to become familiar with many local species.  This is a course for anyone who enjoys plants and wants to learn to identify them and learn more about them, as well as for students with a scientific interest in plant taxonomy and ecology.  
 
TEXTS:
Woodland (2000) Contemporary Plant Systematics and Vankat (1992) The Natural Vegetation of North America, (both on reserve),  and other readings to be assigned.

LECTURES:  MWF 10:50 - 11:50 a.m. in OR284.  Please come to class on time! 

LABORATORY/FIELD TRIPS/DISCUSSIONS:  Th 8:30 - 11:15 p.m.  During September, October, and early November and as long as the weather permits, we will take field trips during the weekly laboratory time.  These will be local botanizing trips and will provide students with the opportunity to develop and practice their identification skills in the field.  Later in the term, when the weather becomes more severe, labs will consist principally of indoor activities and will include trips to such places as the herbarium and greenhouses at the University of Minnesota.  A portion of some labs will be used to discuss assigned readings.

WRITING, EXAMINATIONS, AND GRADING:
  In addition to a comprehensive final, there will be 3 exams during the course. The exams during the course will cover lecture and reading material for 3-5 week periods and will be worth 100 points.  The final will be worth 200 points.  In addition, there will be one quiz on botanical vocabulary worth 50 points.  All students will be required to make a botanical collection of at least 30 species and this will be worth 100 points (Due Nov. 24).  Students will write several memos to one another on issues raised in the course.  In addition, students will write a short final paper (5-8 pages) describing the ecology and research of a particular plant species which they have researched in the botanical literature.  Students also will present their paper orally to the class.  Students will be evaluated on their performance on exams (65%), the quality of their written and oral presentations (15%), the completeness and quality of their botanical collections (15%), and their participation in class discussions and memo writing (5%).  Attendance at lab/field trips is required, and any missed labs/field trips will result in a 20 point deduction (per lab/field trip missed) from the semester total of points.  Regular attendance at lectures is highly recommended. The final exam is scheduled for Friday, December 17, 10:30-12:30.  Students must arrange their end of the semester travel plans so that they can take the exam when it is scheduled. Note: if you have need for special test-taking, note-taking, or other accommodation, please discuss this with Professor Davis.
 
    LECTURE SCHEDULE

Readings: Woodland (W) and Vankat (V) On Reserve

September 8  Introduction                    1-28 (W)

    THE PRAIRIE

    10  Ecology and Geography            158-169 171-179 (V)
    13  Grasses and Forbs                Appropriate Families (W)
    15  Forbs                        Appropriate Families (W)
    17  Forbs
    20  Quiz (Botanical Vocabulary)            Selected terms: 80-108 (W)

    THE CONIFEROUS FOREST

    22  Ecology and Geography            96-107, 142-144 (V)
    24  Trees                        Appropriate Families (W)
    27  Trees                        Appropriate Families (W)
    29  Herbs                        Appropriate Families (W)
  October 1  Ferns, Club Mosses and Horsetails        Appropriate Families (W)
      4  EXAM               

    THE DECIDUOUS FOREST

      6  Ecology and Geography            132-137, 141-142, 152-157 (V)
      8 Trees                        Appropriate Families (W)
    11  Trees                        Appropriate Families (W)
    13  Trees and Herbs                Appropriate Families (W)
    15  No Class (International Roundtable)
    18  Herbs                        Appropriate Families (W)

    AQUATIC AND WETLAND PLANTS

    20  Ecology and Geography
    22  Plants of Freshwater Marshes            Appropriate Families (W)
    25  Field Trip (Mississippi Flood Plain)
    27  Plants of Freshwater Marshes            Appropriate Families (W)

Fall Break

November 1  Bog Plants                    AppropriateFamilies (W)
      3    EXAM

    PLANTS OF DISTURBANCE AREAS

       5  Ecology of Disturbance and Succession    To be assigned
       8  Plants of Old Fields and Roadsides        Appropriate Families (W)
     10  Plants of Old Fields and Roadsides        Appropriate Families (W)
     12  Plants of Flooded and Burned Habitats    Appropriate Families (W)

    THE URBAN FLORA   

   15  Trees                        Appropriate Families (W)
   17  Trees                        Appropriate Families (W)
   19  Shrubs and Herbs                Appropriate Families (W)

    ECONOMIC PLANTS

   22  Food and Medicinal Plants            Appropriate Families (W)
   24  Food and Medicinal Plants            Appropriate Families (W

Thanksgiving

   30   EXAM


     
A LOOK BACKWARD

 December1 Evolution of Vascular Plants            397-436 (W)
     3  History of Plant Classification             361-387 (W)
  
    PLANT ECOLOGY

     6  Pollination Ecology                To be assigned
     8  Dispersal Ecology
   10  Herbivory and Seed Predation                    To be assigned
   13  Invasion Ecology                To be assigned
   15  Biodiversity, GMOs, and the Future        437-478 (W)

   17    FINAL EXAM (10:30-12:30)



       LABORATORY/FIELD TRIP SCHEDULE


Date        Site                        Objective/Focus

9/9        OlinRice    Introduction to principles of plant systematics, botanical keys, and plant collection techniques

9/16        Crow-Hassen Park             The Prairie

9/23        Cedar Creek                Coniferous Forest/Prairie/Savanna/

9/30*        OlinRice/Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden    Coniferous Forest/Deciduous Forest/ Prairie   DISCUSSION

10/7        Wolsfield Woods            Deciduous Forest (Maple-Basswood)

10/14        Ordway                Deciduous Forest (Oak) /Restoration

10/21*        OlinRice/Campus            Introduction to Mounting of Botanical Specimens/DISCUSSION (Readings TBA) Deciduous Forest

10/26        Cedar Creek                Floating Bog/Plant Ecology Research

11/4*        OlinRice                Discussion  (Readings TBA) /Winter Twig Lab

11/11        OlinRice                Work on Collections   

11/18         University of Minnesota        Herbarium

12/2*        OlinRice/Bell Museum        Discussion (Readings TBA) / Review of all species

12/9        OlinRice                Student Oral Presentations of Final Project

* MEMOS DUE
 

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PLANT COLLECTION

Assignment: Make a plant collection of at least 30 species.

Background: The foundation of plant taxonomy are collections of individual plants. These collections usually consist of dried, pressed, and mounted specimens which also contain detailed information regarding where each specimen was collected. This information is usually attached to the specimen sheet on a card. The mounted specimens are usually kept in cabinets in an herbarium. Some of the world's largest herbaria contain several million specimens. The specimens are used by taxonomists, plant ecologists, plant geographers and other scientists. Herbarium collections contain very important historical information regarding the distribution of plants around the world. This information can be of great scientific and practical value as well, e.g., helping scientists identify regions where certain valuable medicinal plants may be found.

Details: Following instructions provided during lab, you will collect and press at least specimens from at least 30 species of vascular plants. Specimens be must complete, that is, contain both vegetative (leaves and twigs) and reproductive parts (flowers and/or fruits). Since few vascular plants in Minnesota still have leaves, flowers, and fruit after November 1 (except conifers), you should try to do most of your collecting during September and early October. Be sure to write down the collection location and date on a slip of paper or tape for each specimen and attach the paper/tape to the respective specimens before pressing. A specimen lacking this information cannot be included in your collection. After being instructed in lab, you will select five of your specimens to mount. You are responsible for identifying each of the specimens you include in your collection.

Due: Prior to Thanksgiving. Your collection should be accompanied with a typed sheet of paper containing a list of your specimens (family and species name) ordered to correspond with the order of your specimens. All specimens should have a fully completed label. Unmounted specimens and their respective labels should be place individually in folded sheets of newspaper.

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TAXONOMIC LISTS

Prairie and Savanna, Mixed Coniferous Forest, Deciduous Forest, Wetlands, Disturbance Areas, Urban Flora, Economic Plants

PRAIRIE and SAVANNA

Family and Species List

POACEAE
Andropogon gerardii
Bouteloua spp.
Panicum virgatum
Schizachyrium scoparium
Setaria spp.
Sorghastrum nutans
Spartina pectinata

FABACEAE
Amorpha canescens
Dalea purpurea

SCROPHULARIACEAE
Penstemon grandiflorus
Veronicastrum virginicum

RANUNCULACEAE
Anemone patens
Delphinium virescens

ASTERACEAE
Aster spp.
Cirsium flodmanii
Liatris aspera
Liatris pycnostachya
Ratibida pinnata
Solidago rigida

ROSACEAE
Rosa arkansana

ASCLEPIADACEAE
Asclepias tuberosa

LILIACEAE
Allium textile

AGAVACEAE
Yucca glauca

CACTACEAE
Opuntia humifusa

FAGACEAE
Quercus macrocarpa

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MIXED CONIFEROUS FOREST

Family and Species List

PINACEAE
Abies balsamea
Larix laricina
Picea glauca
Picea mariana
Pinus banksiana
Pinus resinosa
Pinus strobus
Tsuga canadensis

CUPRESSACEAE
Juniperus communis
Juniperus virginiana
Thuja occidentalis

ACERACEAE
Acer rubrum

BETULACEAE
Betula papyrifera

SALICACEAE
Populus tremuloides

ERICACEAE
Gaultheria procumbens
Vaccinium angustifolium

ONAGRACEAE
Epilobium angustifolium

CORNACEAE
Cornus canadensis

ROSACEAE
Fragaria vesca
Fragaria virginiana
Potentilla tridentata
Prunus pensylvanica
Rosa acicularis
Rosa blanda
Rubus idaeus
Sorbus americana

CAMPANULACEAE
Campanula rotundifolia

CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Linnaea borealis

PRIMULACEAE
Trientalis borealis

ASTERACEAE
Aster macrophyllus

MYRICACEAE
Comptonia peregrina

PYROLACEAE
Chimaphila umbellata

LILIACEAE
Clintonia borealis
Maianthemum canadensis
Trillium cernuum

MONOTROPACEAE
Monotropa uniflora

ORCHIDACEAE
Cypripedium acaule

LYCOPODIACEAE
Lycopodium obscurum
Lycopodium clavatum

OSMUNDACEAE
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytoniana

POLYPODIACEAE
Polypodium virginianum

DENNSTAEDTIACEAE
Pteridium aquilinum

EQUISETACEAE
Equisetum sylvaticum

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DECIDUOUS FOREST

Family and Species List

ACERACEAE
Acer negundo
Acer saccharum

FAGACEAE
Fagus grandifolia
Quercus alba
Quercus ellipsoidalis
Quercus rubra

TILIACEAE
Tilia americana

ULMACEAE
Ulmus americana
Ulmus rubra

JUGLANDACEAE
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra

BETULACEAE
Corylus americana
Ostrya virginiana

OLEACEAE
Fraxinus pennsylvanica

ROSACEAE
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana

CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Sambucus racemosa

RANUNCULACEAE
Actaea alba
Actaea rubra
Aquilegia canadensis
Anemone acutiloba
Anemone americana

BERBERIDACEAE
Podophyllum peltatum

PAPAVARACEAE
Sanguinaria canadensis

FUMARIACEAE
Dicentra cucullaria

VIOLACEAE
Viola canadensis

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Asarum candadense

CUCURBITACEAE
Echinocystis lobata

ANACARDIACEAE
Toxicodendron radicans

LILIACEAE
Erythronium albidum
Erythronium americanum
Erythronium propullans
Polygonatum biflorum
Smilacina racemosa
Trillium grandiflorum

ORCHIDACEAE
Cypripedium reginae

ARACEAE
Arisaema triphyllum

PTERIDACEAE
Adiantum pedatum

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WETLANDS

Family and Species List

RANUNCULACEAE
Caltha palustris

NYMPHACEAE
Nymphaea odorata
Nuphar variegatum

BALSAMINACEAE
Impatiens capensis
Impatiens pallida

LYTHRACEAE
Lythrum salicaria

ANACARDIACEAE
Toxicodendron vernix

CORNACEAE
Cornus stolonifera

IRIDACEAE
Iris versicolor

SPARGANIACEAE
Sparganium americanum

ALISMATACEAE
Sagittaria latifolia

TYPHACEAE
Typha angustifolia
Typha latifolia

ARACEAE
Calla palustris

LEMNACEAE
Lemna spp.
Spirodela spp.
Wolffia spp.

POACEAE
Zizania aquatica

CYPERACEAE
Eriophorum vaginatum

CUPRESSACEAE
Thuja occidentalis

ACERACEAE
Acer rubrum

SALICACEAE
Salix spp.

BETULACEAE
Alnus incana
Alnus viridis

ANACARDIACEAE
Toxicodendron vernix

PINACEAE
Picea mariana
Larix laricina

ERICACEAE
Andromeda glaucophylla
Chamaedaphne calyculata
Kalmia polifolia
Ledum groenlandicum
Vaccinium oxycoccos

SARRACENIACEAE
Sarracenia purpurea

DROSERACEAE
Drosera rotundifolia

LENTIBULARIACEAE
Utricularia cornuta

ORCHIDACEAE
Arethusa bulbosa
Calopogon tuberosus
Pogonia ophioglossoides

DRYOPTERIDACEAE
Onoclea sensibilis

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DISTURBANCE HABITATS (OLD FIELDS and FLOOD PLAINS)

Family and Species List

ASTERACEAE

Achillea millefolium
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Ambrosia trifida
Cichorium intybus
Taraxacum officinale

FABACEAE

Melilotus alba
Melilotus officinale
Trifolium pratense
Trifolium repens

BRASSICACEAE

Barbarea vulgaris

ASCLEPIADACEAE

Asclepias syriaca

EUPHORIBIACEAE

Euphorbia esula

POLYGONACEAE

Rumex crispus

APIACEAE

Daucus carota

CONVOLVULACEAE

Calystegia sepium

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Verbascum thapsus

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Silene latifolia

POACEAE

Poa pratensis

ANACARDIACEAE

Rhus glabra
Rhus typhina

HYDROPHYLLACEAE

Hydrophyllum virginianum

LAMIACEAE

Mentha arvensis

ACERACEAE

Acer saccharinum
Acer negundo

OLEACEAE

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

SALICACEAE

Populus deltoides

VITACEAE

Vitis riparia

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THE URBAN FLORA

Family and Species List

SALICACEAE
Populus alba
Populus nigra
Salix babylonica

BIGNONIACEAE
Catalpa speciosa

FABACEAE
Gleditsia triacanthos

ACERACEAE
Acer platanoides

GINKGOACEAE
Ginkgo biloba

HIPPOCASTANACEAE
Aesculus glabra
Aesculus hippocastanum

RHAMNACEAE
Rhamnus cathartica

PINACEAE
Picea abies
Picea pungens
Pinus sylvestris
Pseudotsuga menziesii

CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Lonicera tatarica

TAXACEAE
Taxus cuspidata

OLEACEAE
Syringia vulgaris

POACEAE
Poa pratensis
Digitaria spp.

PLANTAGINACEAE
Plantago major

OXALIDACEAE
Oxalis stricta

SOLANACEAE
Solanum dulcamara
Solanum nigrum

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PLANTS WITH FAMILIAR ECONOMIC, FOOD, OR MEDICINAL VALUE

Family List (Consisting of families covered earlier in the course)

ASTERACEAE
lettuce
artichoke
sunflower
safflower
chicory

CUCURBITACEAE
watermelon
zucchini
cucumber
pumpkin
cantelope
squash

POACEAE
oats, barley
wheat, rye
rice, Indian rice
sugar cane

BRASSICACEAE
cabbage
cauliflower
broccoli
radish, mustard
turnip
brussel sprouts

ORCHIDACEAE
vanilla

ERICACEAE
blueberries
cranberries

ROSACEAE
cherries
plums
peaches
apricots
pears
apples
raspberries

POLYGONACEAE
rhubarb
buckwheat

ANACARDIACEAE
cashews
mangos

APIACEAE
carrots, parsley
parsnip, dill
celery, carroway
anise

LILIACEAE
onion, garlic
asparagus

IRIDACEAE
saffron

ARACEAE
poi

EUPHORBIACEAE
castor oil
tapioca
pointsettia

FABACEAE
peas, beans
alfalfa, peanuts

SOLANCEAE
potato, tomato
bell pepper
chili pepper
eggplant
tobacco

CONVOLVULACEAE
sweet potato

OLEACEAE
olive oil

LAMIACEAE
mint, marjoram
sage, rosemary
thyme, basil,
catnip

VITACEAE
wine

AGAVACEAE
tequila

OTHER PLANTS WITH FAMILIAR ECONOMIC, FOOD, OR MEDICINAL VALUE

Family List (Consisting of families NOT covered in the course)

You are NOT RESPONSIBLE for these plants and families. They are provided for your interest.

Families with an asterisk contain other species native to Minnesota

RUBIACEAE* (Coffee family)
coffee quinine

MORACEAE* (Mulberry family)
figs, rubber
breadfruit

ARECACEAE (Palm family)
dates
coconut

BROMELIACEAE (Pineapple family)
pineapple
Spanish moss

STERCULIACEAE
chocolate
cola

THEACEAE (Tea Family)
black tea

CHENOPODIACEAE* (Goosefoot family)
spinach, beets
swiss chard

PIPERACEAE (Pepper family)
black pepper
white pepper

LAURACEAE (Laurel family)
avocado
cinnamon

MALVACEAE* (Mallow family)
cotton
hibiscus
okra

RUTACEAE* (Citrus family)
oranges
lemons, limes
grapefruits
tangerines

MUSACEAE (Banana family)
banana

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FINAL PROJECT

Assignment: Research the literature on a particular plant species and prepare both a written and oral presentation describing distinctive aspects of the ecology of the species as well as the focus of much of the ecological research currently being conducted on the species.

Objectives: The purpose of this assignment is to enable you to explore a particular species in detail; to become acquainted with some plant ecological research; to help develop your skills in accessing the primary literature; to give you practice writing in a scientific style and in presenting scientific material in a seminar format.

To fulfill this assignment, you will need to complete the following steps:

1) Select a species.

You may select any species found in habitats that we have studied in the class. Certain species have been studied by researchers more than others however, and obviously it will be easier if you select one of these. Some of the species for which abundant literature exists are listed below. However, you are in no way obligated to select one of these.

Populus tremuloides, Impatiens capensis, Pinus banskiana, Solidago canadensis, Aslcepias syriaca, Pinus strobus, Andropogon gerardii, Prunus pensylvanica, Typha latifolia, Drossera rotundifolia, Arisaema triphyllum, Lythrum salicaria, Erythronium propullans, Quercus macrocarpa, Yucca glauca

2) Locate the articles about your species.

Using standard bibliographic reference tools, including computer searches and the web, identify articles about your species. The hardest part will be identifying the first few articles. Then, it should be easy, since these articles will cite others.

3) Obtain copies of your articles.

For articles in journals other than those at Mac, you have two options. Find a library that subscribes to the journal, e.g., at the University of Minnesota, and go there and copy or read the article. Or, request the article through inter-library loan.

4. Read the articles and prepare a written review (6-9 pages) of the ecology of and research on your species. (Remember that all scientific names either need to be underlined or be in italics.) This is a review paper and thus it will not be in the form a standard scientific paper (with an Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion). Nevertheless, it should have a clear organization and include a few subheadings. You should cite all sources in the text of your paper using the following format:

....and is pollinated by hawk moths (Jones 1992) (Martinez and Jones 1993) (Jones et al. 1994) (Jones 1992, Martinez and Jones 1993)

and

The results obtained by Jones (1992) show that .... Martinez and Jones (1993) show that .... Jones et al. (1994) show that .... Jones (1992) and Martinez and Jones (1993) show ..

You will need to include a Literature Cited section at the end of your paper. Include only those sources actually cited in the paper and in the following format:

Jones, A. C. 1992. The pollination biology of Asclepias syriaca. Ecology 85:234-239.

Martinez, J. C. and A. C. Jones. 1993. A research study of....

For articles in books, use the following format:

Jones, A. C. The Pollination biology of Asclepias syriaca. In, M. W. Willson, and E. G. Lang (eds.), Pollination Biology of Plants. Harper and Row, New York.

5. Prepare a 12-15 minute oral presentation (using some visuals) of your findings.

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