Research In Molecular Genetics
Wednesday, November 13, 2002
• DNA transformation is the introduction of extracellular DNA into
the cell(s) of an organism to produce a phenotypic change
• Transgene - A gene or DNA fragment from one organism that has been
stably incorporated into the genome of another organism (usually plant or
• Organisms that have integrated foreign DNA into their germ line
as a result of the experimental introduction of DNA.
• Microinjection of C. elegans was first done by Kimble et al.
• Methods for production and maintenance of transgenic lines were
reported in 1986 (Fire et al)
• Methodology improved since then (Mello et al ).
• Introduction of
new gene into an organism altering genetic and protein make-up.
• Starlink - transgenic corn;
bacterial gene produces insecticide.
• Frost-resistant strawberry
• sheep's milk is used to produce alpha-1-antitrypsin, an enzyme used
in the treatment of emphysema.
• cow's milk is used to produce lactoferrin, a protein that combats
• goat's milk is used as yet another way to produce tPA, the blood-clot-dissolving
• Use of reporter to assay gene activity
• Use of reporter to assay localization of gene product
• Clone a gene via transgenic rescue assay
• Gene interference - drive expression of anti-sense
• Use in identification and analysis of transgenic C.elegan lines
Introduction of Transgenes
• Via vectors , viral, bacterial
• Microinjection with C. elegans
∑ Cystic fibrosis
∑ Other possible treatments
• Reactions to recombinant technology has been mixed
• Fear use of certain viral vectors that may become pathogenic
• Problem of transgenic animals interbreeding with wild types
• Plant allergens being transferred in food products; Soy-bean and
Donald L. Riddle (Editor), James R. Priess (Editor), Thomas Blumenthal (Editor),
Barbara J. Meyer (Editor)
C. Elegans II (Monographs 33). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press ,January