Transgenics

Research In Molecular Genetics
Martin Chang
Wednesday, November 13, 2002

Introduction
Background
Applications
Industry
More Applications
Introduction of Transgenes
Gene Therapy
Bioethics
Realated Images




Introduction


• DNA transformation is the introduction of extracellular DNA into the cell(s) of an organism to produce a phenotypic change
• Transgene - A gene or DNA fragment from one organism that has been stably incorporated into the genome of another organism (usually plant or animal).
• Organisms that have integrated foreign DNA into their germ line as a result of the experimental introduction of DNA.

Background


• Microinjection of C. elegans was first done by Kimble et al.
• Methods for production and maintenance of transgenic lines were reported in 1986 (Fire et al)
• Methodology improved since then (Mello et al ).

Applications
• Introduction of new gene into an organism altering genetic and protein make-up.
   Transgenic Plant/Food Production
• Starlink - transgenic corn; bacterial gene produces insecticide.
• Frost-resistant strawberry and potato
Industry
• sheep's milk is used to produce alpha-1-antitrypsin, an enzyme used in the treatment of emphysema.
• cow's milk is used to produce lactoferrin, a protein that combats bacterial infections
• goat's milk is used as yet another way to produce tPA, the blood-clot-dissolving enzyme

More Applications
• Use of reporter to assay gene activity
• Use of reporter to assay localization of gene product
• Clone a gene via transgenic rescue assay
• Gene interference - drive expression of anti-sense
• Use in identification and analysis of transgenic C.elegan lines (rol-6, unc-22).


Introduction of Transgenes
• Via vectors , viral, bacterial
• Microinjection with C. elegans


Gene therapy
∑ Cystic fibrosis
∑ Other possible treatments


Bioethics
• Reactions to recombinant technology has been mixed
• Fear use of certain viral vectors that may become pathogenic
• Problem of transgenic animals interbreeding with wild types
• Plant allergens being transferred in food products; Soy-bean and brazil nut


Related Images:

Genetic Engineering

References:


Donald L. Riddle (Editor), James R. Priess (Editor), Thomas Blumenthal (Editor), Barbara J. Meyer (Editor)

C. Elegans II (Monographs 33). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press ,January 1998.