Bio 21 Cell Biology

List of Terms and Study Guide 4

For Exam 2, 14 March 2001

(SUPPLEMENT TO STUDY GUIDE 3)

Photosynthesis

wavelength

electromagnetic spectrum

visible light

photon

absorption spectrum

chlorophyll a

chlorophyll b

accessory pigments (carotenoids and xanthophylls)

light reactions

photosystems

antenna

resonance energy transfer

reaction center

primary electron acceptor

Photosystem II

Photosystem I

noncyclic electron flow

cyclic electron flow

photophosphorylation

NADP+

NADPH

Calvin cycle ("dark reactions")

carbon fixation

RuBP

rubisco

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)

 

You should be able to:

1. Describe the structure of the chloroplast and explain how structure relates to its function.

2. Write a summary equation for photosynthesis.

3. Explain the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis.

4. Understand the wavelike and particlelike behaviors of light.

5. List the wavelengths of light that are most effective for photosynthesis.

6. Explain the relationship between wavelength and energy.

7. Explain what happens when chlorophyll or accessory pigments absorb photons.

8. Recognize the components of a photosystem and explain their function.

9. Compare cyclic and noncyclic electron flow and explain the relationship between these components of the light reactions.

10. Explain how noncyclic photophosphorylation balances NADPH and ATP production to meet requirements of the Calvin cycle.

11. Distinguish between substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation.

12. Describe important differences in chemiosmosis between oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and photophosphorylation in chloroplasts. (Be able to compare both with ATP production in methanogens.)

13. Summarize the carbon-fixing reactions of the Calvin cycle and describe changes that occur in the carbon skeletons of the intermediates (count the carbons; where and what form do they enter, where and what form do they leave).

14. Describe the role of ATP and NADPH in the Calvin cycle.

15. Describe the potential fates of glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate made during the Calvin cycle.

16. Explain how the energy captured by photosynthesis in chloroplasts is distributed to the rest of the plant cell, and in higher plants, to other non-photosynthetic cells such as in roots.

Additional Study Activities (DO WITHOUT LOOKING AT NOTES OR TEXTBOOK.)

Trace the fate of a single carbon molecule, beginning as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as it enters a plant cell --> photosynthesis --> G3P --> glycolysis --> CAC --> --> --> CO2

Trace the fate of a pair of electrons glucose --> --> -->... H2O