TIME LINE:
WESTERN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, CULTURE, & ART
KAREN J. WARREN

 

3000 BC-500AD: Ancient Period (Greece and Rome)
500-1500: Medieval, Renaissance, and Enlightenment Period
1600-1900: Modern Period
1900-Present: Contemporary Period

 

 


3000 BC - 500 AD: Ancient Period (Greece and Rome)

 

  MEN WOMEN




  • Ptolemy (ca. 100-ca. 700)
     
  •  
  • Aganice (ca. 1878 BC)
     
  • Aglaonike
     
  • Arate of Cyrene
     
  • Diotama
     
  • En Hedu'Anna (ca. 2354 BC)
     
  • Gargi
     
  • Hipparchia
     
  • Hypatia (370-415)
     
  • Lasthenia
     
  • Lilovarti
     
  • Maritrayee
     
  • Perictione
     
  • Shi Dun
     
  • Theano
     
  • Themista

  • Anaximander (ca. 611-547 BC)
     
  • Apollonious of Perga (ca. 300-200 BC)
     
  • Archimedes (287-212 BC)
     
  • Eratosthenes (ca. 276-196 BC)
     
  • Euclid (ca. 300 BC)
     
  • Eudoxus (408-355 BC)
     
  • Pythagoras (ca. 582-500 BC)
     
  • Zeno of Elea (ca. 5th century BC)
 

   



 

   

 

 


500-1500: Medieval, Renaissance, and Enlightenment Period

 

  MEN WOMEN



  • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
     
  • Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
     
  • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
     
  • Jan Babtista van Helmont (1580-1644)
     
  •  
  • Barbapiccola
     
  • Celia Grillo Borromeo
     
  • Dorotea Bucca
     
  • Cristine di Pisan (1383-1431)
     
  • Bettina Gozzadini
     
  • Mary Hebraea (ca. 1st century)
     
  • Herrad
     
  • Hildegard von Bingen (1099-1179)
     
  • Nor Mahal
     
  • Elena Cornaro Piscopia

  • Alhazen (965-ca. 1040)
     
  • Al-Battani (ca. 858-929)
     
  • Muhammad ibn Mûsâ al-Khwârizmî (ca. 780-850)
     
  • Qin Jinshao (ca. 1202-1260)
     
  • Zhu Shijie (ca. 1250-1303)
     
  • Leonardo Fibonacci (ca. 1170-1240)
 

   



 

 



 

 

 


1600-1900: Modern Period

 

  MEN WOMEN






















  • Galileo (1564-1642)
     
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
     
  • Voltaire (François Marie Arouet) (1694-1778)
     
  • Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)
     
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
     
  • George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
     
  • John Dewey (1859-1952)
     
  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
     
  • Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953)
     
  • Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927)
     
  • Francis William Aston (1877-1945)
     
  • Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856)
     
  • Pierre Eugéne Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907)
     
  • Baron Jöns Jakob Berzelious (1779-1848)
     
  • Joseph Black (1728-1799)
     
  • Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin (1833-1887)
     
  • Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
     
  • Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-1899)
     
  • Henry Cavendish (1731-1810)
     
  • Sir William Crookes (1832-1919)
     
  • John Dalton (1766-1844)
     
  • Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829)
     
  • Sir James Dewar (1842-1923)
     
  • Jean Babtiste André Dumas (1800-1884)
     
  • Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850)
     
  • Thomas Graham (1805-1869)
     
  • Fritz Haber (1868-1934)
     
  • Otto Hahn  (1879-1968)
     
  • August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818-1892)
     
  • Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (1829-1896)
     
  • Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794)
     
  • Baron von Justus Liebig (1803-1873)
     
  • Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (1711-1765)
     
  • Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907)
     
  • Julius Lothar Meyer (1830-1895)
     
  • Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-1896)
     
  • Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932)
     
  • Joseph Priestly (1733-1804)
     
  • Joseph Louis Proust (1754-1826)
     
  • Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916)
     
  • Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
     
  • Carl Wilhem Scheele (1742-1786)
     
  • Frederick Soddy (1877-1956)
     
  • Harold Clayton Urey (1893-1981)
     
  • Chain Weizmann (1874-1952)
     
  • Friedrich Wöhler (1800-1882)
     
  • Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817-1884)
     
  • Karl Ziegler (1898-1973)
     
  • Louis Victor de Broglie (1892-1987)
     
  • Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961)
     
  • Paul Dirac (1902-1984)
     
  • Max Planck (1858-1947)
     
  • Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
     
  • Sir Joseph John Thompson (1856-1940)
     
  • Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962)
     
  • Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1860-1959)
     
  • Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)
     
  • (Jean) Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-1873)
     
  • William Bateson (1861-1926)
     
  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
     
  • Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884)
     
  • Carlos Juan Finlay (1833-1915)
     
  • Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (1887-1975)
     
  • Alfred Charles Kinsley (1894-1956)
     
  • Lazzaro Spallanzini (1729-1799)
     
  • Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687)
     
  • Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)
     
  • James Bradley (1693-1762)
     
  • Anders Celsius (1701-1744)
     
  • John Flamsteed (1646-1719)
     
  • Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
     
  • Charles Messier (1730-1817)
     
  • Anders Jonas Ångström (1814-1874)
     
  •  
  • Sophia Brahe (16th century)
     
  • Margart Cavendish (1623-1673)
     
  • Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz (1651-1695)
     
  • Marie Cunitz (1610-1664)
     
  • Maria Margarethe (1670-1720)
     
  • Maria Sibylla (1647-1717)
     
  • Tarquinia Molza
     
  • Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1799)
     
  • Maria Angela Ardinghelli
     
  • Anna Atkins (1799-1871)
     
  • Laura Bassi (1711-1778)
     
  • Jane Colden (1724-1766)
     
  • Emilie Marquise du Chatelet De Breteuil (1706-1749)
     
  • Jeanne Dumee (18th century)
     
  • Sophia Germain (1776-1831)
     
  • Catherine Green (18th century)
     
  • Caroline Lucretia Herschel (1750-1848)
     
  • Josephine Kablick (18th century)
     
  • MME. Nichole-Reine-Lepaute (1723-1788)
     
  • Martha Daniell Logan (1702-1779)
     
  • Anna Morandi Manzolini (1716-1774)
     
  • Sybilla Masters (ca. 1715)
     
  • MME. du Pierry (18th century)
     
  • Eliza Luca Pinckney (1723-1766)
     
  • Martha Laurens Ramsey (1718-1811)
     
  • Sabliere (18th century)
     
  • Mary Somerville (1780-1872)
     
  • Janet Taylor (18th century)
     
  • M. Carey Thomas (18th century)
     
  • Jeanne Villepreux-Power (1794-1871)
     
  • Elisabeth Adams (19th century)
     
  • S. Josephine Baker (1873-1945)
     
  • Ruth Benedict (1887-1948)
     
  • Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910)
     
  • Elizabeth Knight Britton (1858-1934)
     
  • Mary E. Britton (19th century)
     
  • Mary Bush (19th century)
     
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
     
  • Cornelia Clapp (1849-1934)
     
  • Maria Dalle Donne (19th century)
     
  • Ellen Eglui (19th century)
     
  • Alice Fletcher (1838-1923)
     
  • Williamina Fleming (1857-1911)
     
  • Margaret Murray Huggins (1848-1916)
     
  • Mary Kies (19th century)
     
  • Sofia Kovalevskia (1850-1891)
     
  • Lefebre (19th century)
     
  • Lady Augusta Ada Byron Lovelace        (1815-1851)
     
  • Mrs. A. H. Manning (19th century)
     
  • Sarah Mather (19th century)
     
  • Maria Mitchell (1818-1889)
     
  • Florence Nightingale (19th century)
     
  • Beatrix Potter (19th century)
     
  • Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911)
     
  • Emily Roebling (d. 1903)
     
  • Clemence Augustine Royer (b. 1830)
     
  • Caterina Scarpellini (b. 1808)
     
  • Nettie Stevens (1861-1912)
     
  • Lucy Hobbs Taylor (1833-1910)
     
  • Mary Walker, MD. (1832-1919)
     
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)
     
  • Sarah F. Whiting (1846 - 1927)








  • Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)
     
  • Joseph Louis, Comte de Lagrange (1736-1813)
     
  • Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665)
     
  • Gottfried Wilhelm Lebiniz (1646-1716)
     
  • Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (1746-1818)
     
  • John Napier (1550-1617)
     
  • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
     
  • Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1829)
     
  • Charles Babbage (1792-1871)
     
  • Johann Jakob Balmer (1825-1899)
     
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846)
     
  • János Bolyai (1802-1860)
     
  • George Boole (1815-1864)
     
  • Georg Cantor (1845-1918)
     
  • Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857)
     
  • Arthur Cayley (1821-1895)
     
  • Jean Baptiste Fourier (1768-1830)
     
  • Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)
     
  • Évariste Galois (1811-1832)
     
  • Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
     
  • David Hilbert (1862-1943)
     
  • Karl Gustav Jacobi (1804-1851)
     
  • Sir James Hopwood Jeans (1877-1946)
     
  • William Thomson Kelvin (1824-1907)
     
  • Nikolay Lobachevsky (1793-1856)
     
  • Emmy Noether (1882-1935)
     
  • Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912)
     
  • Siméon-Denis Poisson (1781-1840)
     
  • Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866)
     
  • Paolo Ruffini (1765-1822)
     
  • Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)
     
  • Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (1815-1897)
     
  • Hermann Weyl (1885-1955)
     
  • Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)
     
  • Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)
 




  • J. S. Bach (1685-1750)
     
  • G. F. Handel (1685-1759)
     
  • W. A. Mozart (1756-
     
  • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
     
  • Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
     
  • James Joyce (1882-1941)
     
  •  
  • Ellen Glasgow (1873-1945)
     
  •  



















 

  • Hobbes meets Galileo in Florence (1636)
     
  • Execution of Charles I - England becomes a Republic (1649)
     
  • Restoration of Charles II (1660)
     
  • Death of Charles II; accession of James II (1685)
     
  • Isaac Newton, Principia (1687)
     
  • Overthrow of James II (1688)
     
  • Accession of William and Mary (1689)
     
  • Death of William III; accession of Queen Anne (1702)
     
  • Duke of Marlborough's victory at Blenheim (1704)
     
  • Act of Union of Scotland and England (1707)
     
  • Accession of Charles VI of the Holy Roman Empire (1711)
     
  • Last execution for witchcraft in England (1712)
     
  • Lebiniz, Monadology (1714)
     
  • Death of Queen Anne; accession of George I (1714)
     
  • Accession of Catherine I of Russia (1725)
     
  • Accession of Anne of Russia (1730)
     
  • Repeal of English statutes against witchcraft (1736)
     
  • Accession of Frederick II of Prussia and Marie-Theresa of Austria; Frederick II creates liberty of press and worship (1740)
     
  • First performance of Handel's Messiah - Dublin (1741)
     
  • British Museum founded (1753)
     
  • Samuel Johnson, Dictionary of the English Language (1755)
     
  • Beginning of the Seven Years' War (1756)
     
  • Boston Tea Party (1773)
     
  • American Declaration of Independence (1776)
     
  • First Constitution of the United States of America (1777)
     
  • Relief Act for Roman Catholics in England (1778)
     
  • England officially recognizes the United States of America (1783)
     
  • Death of Frederick II; succeeded by Frederick William II (1786)
     
  • Declaration of Rights of Man (1789)
     
  • Fall of Bastille (1789)
     
  • Death of Frederick William II; succeeded by Frederick William III (1797)
     
  • Beethoven, First Symphony (1800)
     
  • Death of George III; accession of George IV (1820)
     
  • Catholic Emancipation Act in Britain (1829)
     
  • Death of George IV; accession of William IV (1830)
     
  • Slavery abolished throughout the British Empire (1833)
     
  • Death of William IV; accession of Victoria (1837)
     
  • National Gallery opened (1838)
     
  • Dickens, Oliver Twist (1838)
     
  • Potato Famine in Ireland (1845)
     
  • British Museum opened (1847)
     
  • Darwin, Origin of Species (1859)
     
  • Lincoln assassinated (1865)
     
  • Slavery abolished in the United States of America (1865)
     
  • Suez Canal opened (1869)
     
  • Secret Ballot Act introduced in Britain (1872)
     
  • London Medical School for Women founded (1875)
     
  • Queen Victoria named Empress of India (1877)
     
  • Married Woman's Property Act (1882)
     
  • Irish Home Rule Bill defeated (1886)
     
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, A Study in Scarlet - First Sherlock Holmes novel (1887)
     
  • Celluloid film invented (1887)
     
  • Freud, Studies in Hysteria - First work on psychoanalysis with Breuer (1895)
     
  • Marconi's first radio transmission (1898)

 


1900-Present: Contemporary Period

 

  MEN WOMEN












  • Derek H. R. Barton (1918-1998)
     
  • Willard Frank Libby (1908-1980)
     
  • Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1994)
     
  • Frederick Sanger (1918- )
     
  • Norbert Rillieux (1906-1894)
     
  • Glenn Theodore Searborg (1912-1999)
     
  • Robert Burns Woodward (1917-1979)
     
  • Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)
     
  • Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958)
     
  • Shin'ichiro Tomonaga (1906-1979)
     
  • Julian Seymour Schwinger (1918-1994)
     
  • Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-1988)
     
  • Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906- )
     
  • Werner Arber (1929- )
     
  • David Baltimore (1938- )
     
  •  
  • Herthhha Marks Ayrton (1854-1923)
     
  • Margaret Burbidge (1919- )
     
  • Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941)
     
  • Bessie Coleman (1893-1926)
     
  • Deborah Crocker (1957- )
     
  • Marie Curie (1867-1934)
     
  • Bessie Delany (1889-1995)
     
  • Sadie Delany (1891-1999)
     
  • Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1920-1957)
     
  • Kate Gleason (1865-1933)
     
  • Evelyn Boyd Granville (1924- )
     
  • Anna J. Harrison (20th century)
     
  • Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910-1994)
     
  • Grace Hopper (1906-1992)
     
  • Sethanne Howard (1944- )
     
  • Dorothea Klumpke (1861-1942)
     
  • Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921)
     
  • Margaret E. Matlby (1845-1926)
     
  • Maria Goeppert Mayer (20th century)
     
  • Barbara McClintock (1902-1992)
     
  • Lise Meitner (1878-1968)
     
  • Maud Menton (20th century)
     
  • Juila Morgan (20th century)
     
  • Emily Noether (1882-1935)
     
  • Donna Osif, AG1 (20th century)
     
  • Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900-1978)
     
  • Sophia Pereyaslaw (20th century)
     
  • Georgia Dwelle Rooks (20th century)
     
  • Patsy Sherman (20th century)
     
  • Ida Eva Tacke (20th century)
     
  • Maria Telkes (20th century)
     
  • Mary Olliden Weaver (20th century)
     
  • Dorothy Wrinch (1894-1976)
     
  • Chien Shiung Wu (20th century)
     
  • Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921- )

  • John von Neumann (1903-1957)
     
  • Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954)
     
  • Sir Fred Hoyle (1915- )
     
  • Benoit Mandelbrot (1924- )
 

 
  • Margaret Mitchell (1900-1949)
     
  • Carson McCullers (1917-1967)
     
  • (Mary) Flannery O'Connor (1925-1964)
     
  • Lydia Huntley Sigourney
     
  • Elizabeth Oakes Smith
     
  • Frances Sargent Locke Osgood
     
  • Alice and Phoebe Cary
     
  • Sarah Morgan Bryan Piatt



 

  • Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
     
  • Death of Queen Victoria; accession of Edward VII (1901)
     
  • End of the Boer War (1902)
     
  • Lenin becomes Bolshevik leader (1903)
     
  • Movement for Women's Suffrage becomes active in Britain (1906)
     
  • Labour Bill to give women the right to vote defeated (1907)
     
  • Death of Edward VII; accession of George V (1910)
     
  • Marie Curie awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911)
     
  • Titanic disaster (1912)
     
  • Assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo (1914)
     
  • Outbreak of the First World War (1914)
     
  • Easter Rising in Ireland (1916)
     
  • Battle of Verdun (1916)
     
  • Revolution in Russia (1917)
     
  • America enters World War I (1917)
     
  • Collapse of Central Powers ends First World War (1918)
     
  • Vote given to women over 30 and men over 21 (1918)
     
  • Countess Markiewicz becomes first woman elected to Parliament (1918)
     
  • Prohibition in America (1919)
     
  • First flight across the Atlantic by Alcock and Brown (1919)
     
  • Degrees open to women at Oxford University (1920)
     
  • Irish Free States established (1921)
     
  • Joyce, Ulysses (1922)
     
  • Death of Lenin (1924)
     
  • Women equal to men in suffrage (1928)
     
  • Wall Street Crash (1929)
     
  • Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany (1933)
     
  • Thirteen women elected to British Parliament (1933)
     
  • Hitler assumes title of Furher (1934)
     
  • Death of George V; accession by Edward VIII (1936)
     
  • Abdication of Edward VIII, 325 days later (1936)
     
  • Accession of George VI (1937)
     
  • Second World War begins (1939)
     
  • Battle of Britain (1940)
     
  • Hitler invades Russia (1941)
     
  • America enters World War II (1941)
     
  • Start of Hitler's 'Final Solution' (1942)
     
  • D-Day invasion of Europe (1944)
     
  • End of Second World War (1945)
     
  • Mussolini executed (1945)
     
  • Hitler commits suicide (1945)
     
  • Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945)
     
  • First meeting of the UN General Assembly (1946)
     
  • State of Israel proclaimed (14 May, 1948)
     
  • Mao Tse-Tung proclaims People's Republic of China (1949)
     
  • Death of George VI; accession by Elizabeth II (1952)
     
  • First women peers introduced to House of Lords (21 October, 1958)
     
  • John F. Kennedy elected President of the United States of America (1960)
     
  • Trial of Eichmann in Jerusalem (1961)
     
  • Eichmann executed in Israel (1962)
     
  • First female astronaut - Bykovsky/Tereshkova space flight (1963)
     
  • Assassination of President Kennedy (1963)
     
  • Black civil rights 'freedom march' on Washington, D. C. (1963)
     
  • Enactment of US Civil Rights Bill (1964)
     
  • Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964)
     
  • US troops sent to Vietnam (1965)
     
  • Appointment of first woman high court judge in Britain (1965)
     
  • Outbreak of Six-Day War in Middle East (1967)
     
  • Abortion Act passed in Britain (1967)
     
  • Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1968)
     
  • Mrs. Martin Luther King becomes the first woman to preach at St. Paul's (1969)
     
  • US Astronauts land on the moon (1969)
     
  • Death penalty abolished in the United Kingdom (1969)
     
  • Decimal currency introduced in Britain (1971)
     
  • Paris Peace Settlement ends Vietnam War (1973)
     
  • Ireland, Britain, and Denmark join the European Community (1973)
     
  • Watergate scandal (1974)
     
  • UN peace force sent to Lebanon (1978)
     
  • First direct elections for European Parliament take place in all nine member states (1979)
     
  • Solidarity Trade Union confronts Communist government in Poland (1980)
     
  • Falklands War between Britain and Argentina (1982)
     
  • US space shuttle (Challenger) explodes on take-off (1986)
     
  • Chernobyl nuclear disaster in Soviet Union (1986)
     
  • Fall of Berlin Wall (1989)
     
  • Break-up of Soviet Union (1991)
     
  • Gulf War; Iraq driven out of Kuwait (1991)
     
  • Break-up of Yugoslavia (1992)
     
  • Ratification of Maastricht Treaty on European Unity (1993)
     
  •  

 

Return to course description for The History of Western Women Philosophers

For a more comprehensive list of leading women philosophers, especially since 1900, see KJ Warren's Introduction.

Return to KJ Warren's Index of Courses.

Return to KJ Warren's web page.