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The Endangered Species Act




How it works


Recovery Plans and Delisting

Critical Habitat

Habitat Conservation Plans

Controversy: Is the ESA Effective?

Criticism of the ESA--from both sides

Is the ESA biologically unsound?

Private landowners


Links and References



Keep up-to-date on the latest endangered species and ESA news at Google News.

Read the full text of the ESA as it currently stands.

Read the full text of the internal document obtained by

Tell your senator to save the ESA.

Work together to improve and update the ESA.


Burgess, Bonnie. 2001. Fate of the Wild: The Endangered Species Act and the Future of Biodiversity. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.

Clarren, Rebecca. "Inside the secretive plan to gut the Endangered Species Act.” 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2007.

Curtis, Jeff and Bob Davison. “The Endangered Species Act: Thirty Years on the Ark.” Accessed on March 28, 2007 at

Corn, M. Lynn. February 8, 2001. “Endangered Species: Continuing Controversy (CRS Issue Brief),” Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.

Czech, Brian and Paul R. Krausman and Rena Borkhataria. 1998. “Social Construction, Political Power, and the Allocation of Benefits to Endangered Species,” Conservation Biology 12:1103-1112.

Greenwald, Noah, K. Suckling and M. Taylor. 2006. “Factors affecting the rate and taxonomy of species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act,” in D.D. Goble, J.M. Scott and F.W. Davis: The Endangered Species Act at 30: Vol. 1: Renewing the Conservation Promise. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 50-67.

Jablonski, D. 1991. “Extinctions: a paleontological perspective,” Science 253: 754-57.

National Research Council, Committee on Scientific Issues in the Endangered Species Act. 1995. Report. Washington, D.C.: Department of Interior.

Orians, Gordon. May 1993. "Endangered at What Level?” Ecological Applications 3:206-208.

Ralls, Katherine and Douglas P. Demaster and James A. Estes. 1996. “Developing a Criterion for Delisting the Southern Sea Otter under the U.S. Endangered Species Act,” Conservation Biology 10:1528-1537.

Rohlf, Daniel J. 1991. “Six Biological Reasons Why the Endangered Species Act Doesn't Work—And What to do About It,” Conservation Biology 5:273-282.

Scott, J.M., B. Csuti, J. D. Jacobi, and J. Estes. 1987. “Species Richness: A geographical approach to protecting future biodiversity.” Bioscience 37(11):782-788.

Shaffer, M. 1981. “Minimum population sizes for species conservation,” BioScience 31:131-134.

Tear, Timothy H. and J. Michael Scott and Patricia H. Hayward. 1995. “Recovery Plans and the Endangered Species Act: Are Criticisms Supported by Data?” Conservation Biology 9:182-195.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. Endangered Species Act of 1973 as amended through the 100th Congress. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

Wilcove, David S. and Margaret McMillan and Keith C. Winston. 1993. “What Exactly Is an Endangered Species? An Analysis of the U.S. Endangered Species List: 1985-1991,” Conservation Biology 7:87-93.

Wilson, Patrick Impero. 2001. “Deregulating Endangered Species Protection,” Society and Natural Resources 14:161-171.



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