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Cleaning Our Toxic Nation

Cleaning Our Toxic Nation

History of Superfund
Details of Superfund Act
Current State of Program

Criticisms of Program

Hudson River Case Study

Possible Solutions
References & Links

Comments and questions to:


Superfund Information

Wikipedia site:

Up to the minute news from Google News

The Environmental Protection Agency

Superfund program:

Federal register for NPL sites:

Locate NPL sites:

Hudson River Dredging Project 

General Electric's dredging project site:

Scenic Hudson:


Friends of the Hudson:

EPA project site:

Citizen Action

Write your Congressperson:


Abelson, P. H. (1990). Inefficient Remediation of Ground-Water Pollution. Science, 250(4982), 733.

Angelo, W. J. (2005). GE Finalizes Cleanup Plan For PCBs in Hudson River. ENR: Engineering News-Record, 255(1), 17-17.

Barnett, H. C. (1993). Crimes against the Environment: Superfund Enforcement at Last. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 525(White-Collar Crime), 119-133.

Brown, Mark, Werner, Mary, Sloan, Ronald, Simpson, Karl. (1985). Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River: Recent trends in the distribution of PCBs in water, sediment and fish. Environmental Science and Technology, 19(8)

Carol LaGrasse. (2001). In Christie Todd Whitman (Ed.), Re: Dredging of PCB-laden Mud from the Hudson River. The Property Rights Foundation of America.

Center for Hazardous Waste Management, & Coalition on Superfund. (1989). Coalition on Superfund research report. Chicago, Ill: The Center, Illinois Institute of Technology/ IIT Research Institute.

Chang, H. F., & Sigman, H. (2000). Incentives to Settle under Joint and Several Liability: An Empirical Analysis of Superfund Litigation. The Journal of Legal Studies, 29(1), 205-236.

Chepesiuk, R. (1994). The Environmental Lobbying Game: Who Plays It on Capitol Hill and How. Environmental health perspectives, 102(8), 640-642.

Claudio, L. (2002). The Hudson: A River Runs through an Environmental Controversy. Environmental health perspectives, 110(4), A184-A187.

Cohen, B. R. (2002). EPA's Dredging Scheme Will Wreak Havoc on the Hudson River. Human Events, 58(1), 10.

Cohn, L., & Dunham, R. S. (2001). Christie Whitman Starts to Get some Respect. Business week, (374), 61-61.

Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D., & Peterson Myers, J. (1997). Our Stolen Future: Are we threatening our Fertility, Intelligence and Survival? New York: Penguin Books.

Final Design for First Phase of Hudson River Dredging Project: An Overview (2006). General Electric Environmental Programs.

Fischbeck, P. S., & Farrow, R. S. (2001). Improving regulation: cases in environment, health, and safety. Washington, D.C: Resources for the Future.

Hird, J. A. (1993). Environmental Policy and Equity: The Case of Superfund. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 12(2), 323-343.

Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site Community Involvement Plan (August 2003). . New York, NY: United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Hughes, J., & Breslin, K. (1993). In Our Own Backyards: The Continuing Threat of Hazardous Waste. Environmental health perspectives, 101(6), 484-489.

Kamieniecki, S., Gonzalez, G. A., & Vos, R. O. (1997). Flashpoints in environmental policymaking: controversies in achieving sustainability. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kluger, J., Duffy, M., & Kher, U. (2001). Here Comes the Dredge. Time, 158(6), 23.

Malkin, M. (2001). Who Runs EPA, George Bush or Al Gore? Human Events, 57(3), 11.

McConnell, C. (2006). Contested Remediation: Local people, corporate America, and mainstream environmentalism in the Hudson River Valley. Unpublished manuscript.

Moon, B. In American Public Media (Ed.), Marketplace for August 1, 2001

Morgenstern, R. D., & Portney, P. R. (2004). New approaches on energy and the environment: policy advice for the president. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Preliminary Design Report Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site (2004). . Albany, NY: General Electric Company.

Probst, K. N., & Konisky, D. M. (2001). Superfund's future: what will it cost? : a report to Congress. Washington, D.C: Resources for the Future.

Probst, K. N., Portney, P. R., & Resources for the Future. (1992). Assigning liability for Superfund cleanups: an analysis of policy options. Washington, D.C: Resources for the Future.

Quivik, F. L. (2001). Integrating the Preservation of Cultural Resources with Remediation of Hazardous Materials: An Assessment of Superfund's Record. The Public Historian, 23(2), 47-61.

Reed, C. (2002). The dredging dilemma. Geotimes.

Reisch, M. E. A., United States. Congress. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, & Library of Congress. (1983). A legislative history of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund), Public Law 96-510: together with a section-by-section index. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

Responsiveness Summary: Hudson River PCBs Site Record of Decision White Papers (January 2002). . New York, NY: United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Revesz, R. L., & Stewart, R. B. (1995). Analyzing superfund: economics, science, and law. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Stein, L. (2001). Muddy waters. U.S. News & World Report, 131, 21.

Tucker, W. (2002). Junk Science, Green Gangsters & the Pursuit of PCBs. (Cover story). American Spectator, 35(1), 52.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. (1984). Implementation of the superfund program : hearings before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighty Congress, first and second sessions, on November 10, 1983 ... November 16, 1983 ... November 22, 1983 ... January 25, 1984 .. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. (1984). Superfund reauthorization : hearings before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, second session, on H.R. 4813 and H.R. 4915 ... February 28, March 1, 8, and 15, 1984. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Ways and Means, & United States. Congress. Joint Committee on Taxation. (1985). Background and issues relating to House bills for reauthorization and financing of the Superfund: scheduled for a hearing before the Committee on Ways and Means on May 9, 1985. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

United States. General Accounting Office & United States Congress. (1987). Superfund: improvements needed in work force management: report to the Congress. Washington, D.C: The Office.

Walsh, D. (2000). In Browner C. (Ed.), Copy of The Business Council's June 14, 2000 letter to EPA administrator Carol Browner urging the EPA to reaffirm its 1984 decision not to dredge the Hudson River to remove PCBs. The Business Council of New York.

Welch, J. (2002). In the Crosshairs. American Spectator, 35(1), 65.


 This project was completed by Clara McConnell for Citizen Science, a class at Macalester College, in the spring of 2007. All photos are licensed by Creative Commons. This site was made with Nvu.

Last updated:  4/30/2007


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