academic environmental studies   macalester college
Environmental Studies
Fluoride Frenzy

Fluoridation Frenzy

History of Fluoridation
How Fluoride Works


What is going on now?

The Arguments Against
The Internet Effect
References & Links

Comments & questions to:

Fluoridation Frenzy

            From California to New York, citizens have taken political action to stop what they perceive as the poisoning of municipal water systems. That people want safe drinking water is no surprise. What is startling is that this alleged poisoning of the water has been hailed by the Center for Disease Control as one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the 21st century. (

            70% of Americans live in areas that fluoridate their drinking water ( Fluoridation, or adding small amounts of fluoride to drinking water, has been practiced in the United States for 65 years. Advocates of water fluoridation include the American Dental Association, many dentists, public health officials, citizens, and organizations like the American Association of Family Physicians and the American Council on Science and Health. They claim that municipal water fluoridation is a safe, economical, and effective measure of preventing dental cavities and promoting public health. Opponents of water fluoridation, who include the EPA Headquarters Union of Scientists, some dentists, public health officials, concerned citizens, and organizations such as the Fluoride Action Network, claim that fluoridation has minimal benefits and serious risks. They point to a growing body of evidence that blames fluoridation for health effects ranging from dental fluorosis to cancer.

            This website explores a series of questions worthy of investigation surrounding the fluoride controversy. What is the current state of water fluoridation in the United States? Why is fluoridation such a divisive issues? And how is it that after 50 years of momentum in favor of fluoridation, the anti-fluoridation movement is finally starting to gain ground?

            Ultimately, it is evident that the science behind water fluoridation is disputed. It seems unlikely that people of differing opinions will be able to reach agreement while they still disagree on the facts. As such, it may be necessary for a reputable third party to perform a comprehensive scientific review of the benefits and dangers of fluoridation. In the meantime, it seems best to continue to let citizens have a say, through democratic processes, in whether or not fluoride is right for their community.



Many people are concerned about flouride exposure from their tap water.

Last updated:  5/2/2010


Macalester College 1600 Grand Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105  USA  651-696-6000
Comments and questions to