BiDil: A Cast Study of Racial Medicine
AHeFT.org. 2005. “Questions about theAHeFT Study.” Retrieved from www.aheft.org/questions.asp
Bamshad, Michael and Steve Olson. 2003. "Does Race Exist?" Scientific American. Retreived from http://schools.tdsb.on.ca/rhking/departments/science/bio/evol_pop_ dyn/does_race_exist.pdf
Guido et al. 1997. "An Apportionment of Human DNA Diversity." Retrieved
Carson, P., et al. 1999. “Racial Differences in Response to Therapy for
Heart Failure: Analysis of the
Vasodilator-Heart Failure Trials,” Journal of Cardiac Failure 5, no. 3: 178–187.
Cohn, J., et al. 1986. “Effect of Vasodilator Therapy on Mortality in
Chronic Congestive Heart Failure.
Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study,” New England Journal of Medicine 314, no. 24: 1547– 1552.
Ellison, George, et al. 2008.
“Flaws in the US FDA’s Rationale for Supporting the Development and Approval of BiDil as a Treatment for Heart
Failure Only in Black Patients.”Journalof Law Medicine and Ethics Retrieved
Graves, Joseph L, and Michael R Rose. 2006. "Personalized
and Racialized Medicine Are Not the Same.Racesci.http://www.racesci.org/racescinow/health, disease,%20and%20racial%20 medicine/4.html
Iohom, G., Fitzgerald, D., &
Cunningham, A. J. (2004). “Principles of Pharmacogenetics— Implications for the Anaesthetist.” British
Journal of Anaesthesia, 93, 440–450
Jaffe, Jaelline. 2010. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Making Smart and Healthy Choices." HelpGuide.org Retrieved from http://helpguide.org/mental/complementary _alternative_mental_health_treatment.htm
Jones, Joseph and Alan Goodman.
2005. “BiDil and the ‘Fact’ of Genetic Blackness: Where Politics and Science Meet.” American Anthropological Association. Retrieved from http://www.aaanet.org/press/an/1005/Jones_Goodman.htm
Jordan, Sara. (2006). "Race, Medicine and Social Justice: The Case of BiDil" Paper
presented at the annual meeting of the
The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p138189_index.html.
Kahn, Jonathan. 2004. “How a Drug Becomes ‘Ethnic’: Law, Commerce, and
the Production of Racial Categories in
Medicine.”Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics 4, no. 1:1–46.
Kahn, Jonathan. April 7, 2010. Personal Interview. Hamline Law Department, St. Paul, MN
“Medco Research Finds Bidil Bioequivalent and Re-Acquires Rights from
Boehringer-Manheim Pharmaceuticals; Plans
to Submit NDA.” 2 April 1996. PR Newswire.
Medical News Today.
(2005). NY Times Examines ‘Controversial Pricing System’ for BiDil, First Racially Targeted Medication. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday. com/printerfriendlynews.php?newsid=27176.
Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. (1994). “Racial Formation.” In Racial Formation in the United States. New York: Routledge.
Ossorio, P., & Duster, T. (2005). Race and Genetics: Controversies
in Biomedical, Behavioral and Forensic
Sciences. American Psychologist, 2005, 115–128.
Pihl-Carey, K. 2005. “NitroMed, Preparing for BiDil Launch, Publicly
Raises $80M,” BioWorldOnline. Retrieved from www.bioworld.com
Race: The Power of an Illusion: The Story We Tell. 2003. Executive Producer:Larry Adelman, Episode Producers:
Christine Herbes-Sommers, Tracy Strain, LlewellynSmith, Series Co-Producer:
Jean Cheng. California Newsreel.
Root, Michael. 2003. "The Use of Race in Medicine as a Proxy for Genetic Information." Philosophy of Science Association. Retrieved
Sankar, P., & Kahn, J. (2005). BiDil: Race Medicine or Race Marketing?
Health Affairs, July–December,
Supplementary Webexclusives, W5-455-W463.
Shastry, B.S. 2005. “Pharmacogenetics and
the Concept of Individualized Medicine.” The Pharmacogenomics Journal. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/tpj/journa /v6/n1/abs/6500338a.html
Silverman, Harold. 2007.
“Bioequivalence and Interchangeability of Generic Drugs.” Merck. Retrieved from http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec02/ch017/ch017b.html
Taylor, A.L., et al. 2004. “Combination of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Hydralazine
in Blacks with Heart Failure,” New England
Journal of Medicine 351, no. 20: 2049–2057.
Taylor, Rodney. (2006). Policy and Practice Implications Arising from
the Workshop ‘Classifying Genomics:
How Social Categories Shape Scientific and Medical Practice.’ ESRC
Genomics Policy and Research Forum Retrieved from http://www.genomics network.ac.uk/media/RacePolicyImplications.pdf
Tutton, Richard. 2004. “Postcards: Race and Medicine in the 21st
Century.” British Journal of General Practice. 506, no. 54: 716-717.
Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1326090/
Figure 1 Race Collage: http://www.flickr.com/photos/amsterdamned/2060974024/
Figure 2 FDA: http://www.flickr.com/photos/broact/4340167114/
Figure 3 Science: http://www.flickr.com/photos/fdctsevilla/4052593758/
Figure 4 Gavel: http://www.flickr.com/photos/neverblog/461425245/
Figure 5 Human Genome: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dollar_bin/855305262/advanceds teh discrouse
Figure 6 A Pill for Every Illness: http://www.flickr.com/photos/anniewong/667400857/
Figures 7-10 Pill Collages: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hispanicoreloaded/2595262522/
Figure 11 Heart Pills: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bitzi/371825964/