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BiDil: A Case Study of Racial Medicine

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References & Links

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BiDil: A Cast Study of Racial Medicine

 Links to Additional Reading

1) BiDil: Race Medicine or Race Marketing? Sankar and Kahn 

Does Race Exist? Michael Bamshad and Steve Olson 

3) Policy and Practice Implications Arising from the Workshop ‘Classifying Genomics: How Social Categories Shape Scientific and Medical Practice.’  Rodney Taylor 

4) Race, Genetics, and Healthcare. Lynn Jorde and Steve Olson. National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics.

NY Times Examines ‘Controversial Pricing System’ for BiDil,  First Racially Targeted Medication

6) FDA Approves BiDil FDA Press Release 

    Links to Activist Opportunities

1) Social Investing and Consuming Activist Groups and Organizations: database of organizations working toward equality and sustainability of a wide range of topics.

2) National Political Index: database of political activist groups working on a plethora of issues.

3) National Fair Housing Alliance: national consortium of more than 220 fair housing organizations. 

4) Teacher Activist Groups: national coalition of teacher organizations striving to achieve educational equality and justice.

5) The Food and Drug Law Institute: forum for discussion and education on policy and regulation.

6) The Environmental Justice Resource Center: policy and research oganization and database of resources committed to resolving issues of environmental justice in communities. 

7) Citizens League: public policy and civic action forum addressing social inequalities and issues in Minnesota. 

References 2005. “Questions about theAHeFT Study.” Retrieved from

Bamshad, Michael and Steve Olson. 2003. "Does Race Exist?" Scientific American. Retreived from dyn/does_race_exist.pdf

Barbujani, Guido et al. 1997. "An Apportionment of Human DNA Diversity." Retrieved from file_it-Proceedings%20of%20the%20National%20Academy%20of%20Sciences%20USA%2094.pdf

Carson, P., et al. 1999. “Racial Differences in Response to Therapy for Heart Failure: Analysis of the Vasodilator-Heart Failure Trials,” Journal of Cardiac Failure 5, no. 3: 178–187. 

Cohn, J., et al. 1986. “Effect of Vasodilator Therapy on Mortality in Chronic Congestive Heart   Failure. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study,” New England Journal of Medicine 314, no. 24: 1547– 1552.

Ellison, George, et al. 2008. “Flaws in the US FDA’s Rationale for Supporting the Development and Approval of BiDil as a Treatment for Heart Failure Only in Black Patients.”Journalof Law Medicine and Ethics Retrieved from

   Graves, Joseph L, and Michael R Rose. 2006. "Personalized and Racialized Medicine Are Not the          Same.Racesci., disease,%20and%20racial%20                   medicine/4.html

Iohom, G., Fitzgerald, D., & Cunningham, A. J. (2004). “Principles of Pharmacogenetics— Implications for the Anaesthetist.” British Journal of Anaesthesia, 93, 440–450

Jaffe, Jaelline. 2010. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Making Smart and Healthy Choices." Retrieved from _alternative_mental_health_treatment.htm

Jones, Joseph and Alan Goodman. 2005. “BiDil and the ‘Fact’ of Genetic Blackness: Where Politics and Science Meet.” American Anthropological Association. Retrieved from

Jordan, Sara. (2006). "Race, Medicine and Social Justice: The Case of BiDil" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois,

Kahn, Jonathan. 2004. “How a Drug Becomes ‘Ethnic’: Law, Commerce, and the Production of Racial Categories in Medicine.”Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics 4, no. 1:1–46.

Kahn, Jonathan. April 7, 2010. Personal Interview. Hamline Law Department, St. Paul, MN
“Medco Research Finds Bidil Bioequivalent and Re-Acquires Rights from Boehringer-Manheim Pharmaceuticals; Plans to Submit NDA.” 2 April 1996. PR Newswire. 

Medical News Today.  (2005). NY Times Examines ‘Controversial Pricing System’ for BiDil,  First Racially Targeted Medication.  Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.        com/printerfriendlynews.php?newsid=27176.

Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. (1994). “Racial Formation.” In Racial Formation in the United States. New York: Routledge. Pg. 53-76.

Ossorio, P., & Duster, T. (2005). Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral and Forensic Sciences. American Psychologist, 2005, 115–128.

Pihl-Carey, K. 2005. “NitroMed, Preparing for BiDil Launch, Publicly Raises $80M,” BioWorldOnline. Retrieved from 


    Race: The Power of an Illusion: The Story We Tell. 2003. Executive Producer:Larry Adelman,             Episode Producers: Christine Herbes-Sommers, Tracy Strain, LlewellynSmith, Series                         Co-Producer: Jean Cheng. California Newsreel.

    Root, Michael. 2003. "The Use of Race in Medicine as a Proxy for Genetic Information."                       Philosophy of Science Association. Retrieved from                         courses/484%20materials/Root_Race_in_Medicine.pdf

Sankar, P., & Kahn, J. (2005). BiDil: Race Medicine or Race Marketing? Health Affairs, July–December, Supplementary Webexclusives, W5-455-W463.

Shastry, B.S. 2005. “Pharmacogenetics and the Concept of Individualized Medicine.” The Pharmacogenomics Journal. Retrieved from      /v6/n1/abs/6500338a.html

Silverman, Harold. 2007. “Bioequivalence and Interchangeability of Generic Drugs.” Merck Retrieved from

Taylor, A.L., et al. 2004. “Combination of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Hydralazine in Blacks with Heart Failure,” New England Journal of Medicine 351, no. 20: 2049–2057.

Taylor, Rodney. (2006). Policy and Practice Implications Arising from the Workshop ‘Classifying Genomics: How Social Categories Shape Scientific and Medical Practice.’ ESRC Genomics Policy and Research Forum Retrieved from http://www.genomics

Tutton, Richard. 2004. “Postcards: Race and Medicine in the 21st Century.” British Journal of General Practice. 506, no. 54: 716-717. Retrieved from


Header Pictures

Figure 1 Race Collage: 

Figure 2 FDA:

Figure 3 Science:

Figure 4 Gavel:

Figure 5 Human Genome: teh discrouse 

Figure 6 A Pill for Every Illness:

Figures 7-10 Pill Collages:

Figure 11 Heart Pills:

Figure 11: Heart Pills

Last updated: 5.3.10


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