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Environmental Studies

Endocrine Disrupters and the Pill

How EDs Work
Our Stolen Future
Drugs in the Environment
Examples of EDs
Government Testing
The Pill as an ED
History of the Pill
Case Study: Coastal Waters
Case Study: Fish
Case Study: Men in Italy
What you can do!
Further Information

Comments & questions to:


Batt, Sharon. "Pouring Drugs Down the Drain." Herizons (2005 Spring): 12
Borenstein, Seth. "Estrogen Bend Gender of Male fish Living in water Contaminated by Birth Control Pill Residue." Knight Ridder Newspapers 27 June 2003.
Burgess, Carla. "Estrogens in Coastal Waters: The Sewage Source." Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003 April): 232

Colborn, Theo et al. "Our Stolen Future." 1996

EPA. "Clean Water Act." Environmental Protection Agency. As amended in 2002.

EPA. "Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program." Environmental Protection Agency 29 March 2006

EPA. "Resource Conservation and Recovery Act" Environmental Protection Agency 1986

EPA. "Safe Drinking Water Act." Environmental Protection Agency 2004.

EPA. "Toxic Substance Control Act." Environmental Protection Agency. 1976

Food and Drug Administration. "Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act" As amended through December 31, 2004

Figà-Talamanca, Irene and Pietro Carbone. "Environmental Factors and the Proportion of Males at Birth in Italy." Archives of Environmental Health 58 (2003 February): 119-124

Fox, Jennifer E. "Non-Traditional Targets of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: The Roots of Hormone Signaling" Intergr. Comparative Biology 45 (2005): 179-188

Gazit, Chana (Director) "American Experience: The Pill" PBS

Hollander, Dore. "Environmental Effects on Reproductive Health: The Endocrine Disruption Hypothesis." Family Planning Perspectives 29 (1997 Mar/Apr): 82,86,89

Johns Hopkins. "Hopkins Report: As the Pill Turns 40, More Women Than Ever Use It." Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs 5 May, 2000

Knopper, Melissa. "Drugging Our Water: We Flush it, the We Drink It." Green Living: E Magazine (2003 Jan/Feb): 40-1

Mendes, JJ Amaral. "The endocrine disrupters: a major medical challenge." Food and Chemical Toxicology 40 (2002): 781-788

Petrovic, M. and E Eljarrat, MJ Lopez de Alda, D Carceló. "Endocrine Disrupting   Compound and other emerging contaminants in the environment: A survey on new   monitoring strategies and occurrence data." Analytical Bioananalytical Chemistry 378 (2004): 549-562

Roth, M. "Pharmaceuticals in the Environment."

Schäfer, AI and TD Waite. "Removal of Endocrine Disrupters in Advanced Treatment- The Australian Approach." Centre for Water and Waste Technology

Stiffler, Lisa. "Birth control May be Harming State's Salmon: Synthetic Estrogen in water seem to affect reproduction." Seattle Post-Intelligencer 4 June 2003.

Tulane University. "e.hormone" Center for Bioenvironmental Research 16 April 2006. 16 April 2006. <>

Vogel, Jason M. "Perils of Paradigm: Complexity, Policy Design, and the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program" Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 4 (2005)

Last updated:  5/2/2006


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