Glossary of Dyslexia Related Words

  • Agraphia -- loss of the ability to write
  • Alexia -- a form of sensory aphasia resulting in the loss of the ability to read; word blindness
  • Ambidextrous -- possessing the ability to work effectively with either hand
  • Anterior genu-- describes the forward region of the corpus collosum
  • Aphasia -- Absence or impairment of the ability to communicate through speech, written, or sign language due to dysfunction of brain centers
  • Autoimmune Disease -- a disease in which the immune system erroneously attacks self-cells
  • Cerebral Vascular Accident-- a rupture of a blood vessels in the brain
  • Chromosomes -- structures located in the nucleus of the cell that contain DNA which transmits genetic information; this information codes for all human qualities and characteristics
  • Concordance Rates -- Statistical analysis on twin studies which determines the extent to which twins are similar; low rates = not similar (or environmentally influenced), high rates = similar (genetically influenced)
  • Congenital defects-- an abnormality presented at birth
  • Corpus Collosum -- bundle of nerves which run between the left and right lobes and thus, enable the two lobes to communicate
  • Dizygotic Twins -- fraternal twins who stem from two eggs and two sperm
  • Genetic Predisposition -- creates a greater risk of displaying a particular characteristic or a certain disorder due to the inherited genetic composition
  • Hereditary Traits-- genetic characteristic transmitted from parent to offspring
  • Heterogeneous Condition -- A condition caused by more than one chromosome
  • Interhemispheric Communication -- communication between the left and right lobes of the brain
  • Magnocellular -- a layer in the LGN that provides infor about form, movement, depth, and modulation of constrast sensitivity
  • Magnocellular Pathway -- neuronal pathway that connects the retina (eye) to the occipital and parietal lobes of the brain (regions of the brain that process, in part, visual and auditory information); transfers information pertaining to objects in motion
  • Monozygotic twins -- identical twins who stem from one egg and one sperm
  • Parvocellular -- a layer in the LGN that provides info about color and fime details
  • Parvocellular Pathway -- coincides with the magnocellular pathway to form the lateral geniculate nucleus; transfers information which describes objects
  • Posterior -- describes the back end of a region
  • Sensory aphasia -- Inability to understand spoken words if auditory center is affected (auditory aphasia) or the written word if visual center is affected (visual aphasia)
  • Strephosymbolia -- difficulty in distinguishing between letters that are similar but face opposite directions Ex: p-g and b-d
  • Vestibullary -- sense of balance
  • Wordblindness-- a form of sensory aphasia resulting in the loss of the ability to read; alexia