Home   » The idea of g

  » Types of Intelligence

  » Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment
        Evidence for Nature
        Evidence for Nurture
        Comments on Research

  » Neuropsychological Testing
        Normal Intelligence
        Abnormal Examination             and Brain Trauma

  » Spectroscopy Data

  » Disorders related to Intelligence

  »  Gender Differences
       Self-Estimated              Intelligence
       Anatomical Differences
       Gray vs. White Matter

  » Artificial Intelligence
        A Timeline of AI
        Ancient History of AI
        Modern History of AI
        The Future of AI

  » Age and Intelligence
        Areas of Function
        Effects of Lesions

  » References

Spectroscopy and Intelligence

Cognitive spectroscopy is a neuroimaging modality that combines measures of regional brain chemistry with measures of neuropsychological functioning. Among the neurometabloites most commonly assessed are:

N-acetylaspartate (NAA)    A Marker of neuronal density and function. It has been positively correlated to intelligence (higher levels have shown a higher score on intelligence scales). Levels were also lower in schizophrenics, whose functioning is lower. It is a marker of oxidative phosphorylation, and may protect neurons from osmotic stress.

Choline (Cho)    A marker of cell membrane synthesis and repair.

Creatine (Cre)    A marker of tissue energetics.


Spectroscopy comes from processing the peaks of chemicals with an MRI at particular voxels of interest (often right and left frontal white matter and left occipitoparietal white matter).  Chemicals in the brain may be important for defining intelligence and for understanding the unbalance created for those with disorders.  They may be the key to functioning and general intelligence (g).