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  » Types of Intelligence

  » Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment
        Evidence for Nature
        Evidence for Nurture
        Comments on Research

  » Neuropsychological Testing
        Normal Intelligence
        Abnormal Examination             and Brain Trauma

  » Spectroscopy Data

  » Disorders related to Intelligence

  »  Gender Differences
       Self-Estimated              Intelligence
       Anatomical Differences
       Gray vs. White Matter

  » Artificial Intelligence
        A Timeline of AI
        Ancient History of AI
        Modern History of AI
        The Future of AI

  » Age and Intelligence
        Areas of Function
        Effects of Lesions

  » References


  1. Richard J. Haier, Rex E. Jung, Ronald A. Yeo, Kevin Head and Michael T. Alkire. (2005) The neuroanatomy of general intelligence: sex matters. Neuroimage, Volume 25, Issue 1.

  2. Furnham, A., Rakow, T., Sarmany-Schuller, I., & De Fruyt, F. (1999). European differences in self-perceived multiple intelligences. European Psychologist, 4(3), 131-138.

  3. Kershner, J. R., & Ledger, G. (1985). Effect of sex, intelligence, and style of thinking on creativity: A comparison of gifted and average IQ children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(4), 1033-1040.

  4. Naglieri, J. A., & Rojahn, J. (2001). Gender differences in planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive (PASS) cognitive processes and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 430-437.

  5. Rammstedt, B., & Rammsayer, T. H. (2002). Self-estimated intelligence: Gender differences, relationship to psychometric intelligence and moderating effects of level of education. European Psychologist, 7(4), 275-284.

  6. Levine, Andrea S. & Rex Jung (2005).  “Cognitive Spectroscopy:  A window to cognitive functioning”.

  7. Jung, Haier, Yeo, Rowland, Petropoulos, Levine, Sibbitt, & Brooks (2005).  “Sex differences in     N-Acetylaspartate correlates of general intelligence: An 1H-MRS study of normal human brain”; Neuroimage.

  8. Garlick, Dennis. "Understanding the Nature of the General Factor of Intelligence: The Role of Individual Differences in Neural Plasticity as an Explanatory Mechanism." Psychological Review. 2002, Vol. 109, No. 1, 116-136.

  9. Woodruf-Pak, Diana S. et al.  "Relationships Among Age, Conditioned Stimulus-Unconditioned Stimulus Interval, and Neuropsychological Test Performance."  Neuropsychology.  1999, Vol 13, No. 1, 90-102.

  10. Johnson, Sterling C., Erin D. Bigler, Robert B. Burr, and Duane D. Blatter.  "White Matter Atrophy, Ventricular DIlation, and Intellectual Functioning Following Traumatic Brain Injury." Neuropsychology. 1994, Vol. 8, No. 3, 307-315.

  11. Rypma, Bart, Vivek Prabhakaran, John E. Desmond, and John D. E. Gabrieli. "Age Differences in Prefrontal Cortical Activity in Working Memory." Psychology and Aging.  2001, Vol 16, No. 3, 371-384.

  12. Bigler, Erin D. et al.  "Role of White Matter Lesions, Cerebral Atrophy, and APOE on Cognition in Older Persons With and Without Dementia: The Cache County, Utah, Study of Memory and Aging."  Neuropsychology. Vol 17, No. 3, 339-352.

  13. Allen, G. (2002). The measure of a Victorian polymath: Pulling together strands of Galton's legacy to modern biology. Nature, 145(3),19-20.

  14. Bynum, W. F. (2002). The childless father of eugenics. Science, 296, 472.

  15. Jensen, A.R. (1969). How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review, 39, 1-123.

  16. McCall, R.B. (1973). Intelligence and heredity. Homewood, Illinois: Learning Systems Co.

  17. Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: The Free Press, 1994.

  18. Kagan, Jerome, and Earnest Havermann. Psychology: An Introduction. 4th ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, Inc., 1980.

  19. Segal, Nancy L., Ph.D. ‘New Twin Studies Show…’ Psychology Today Oct. 1999: 54-59 and 69-70.

  20. Winship, C., & Korenman, S. (1997). Does staying in school make you smarter? The effect of education on IQ in The Bell Curve. In B. Devlin, S.E. Fienberg., & K. Roeder (pp. 215-234). Intelligence, Genes, and Success: Scientists respond to The Bell Curve. New York: Springer.

  21. Wahlsten, D. (1997). The malleability of intelligence is not constrained by heritability. In B. Devlin, S.E. Fienberg., & K. Roeder (pp. 71-87). Intelligence, Genes, and Success: Scientists respond to The Bell Curve. New York: Springer.

  22. Gordon, E. W., & Lemons, M. P. (1997). An interactionist perspective on the genesis of intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg & E. Grigorenko (Ed.), Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment (pp. 323-342) New York: Cambridge University Press.

  23. Dempsey, David, and Philip G. Zimbardo. Psychology & You. United States of American: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1978.

A brief history of artificial intelligence.   http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/artificial_intelligence.php
This site includes information on Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace, on Alan Turing and the Turing test, and on game programming.

Science historian examines the 18th-century quest for 'artificial life'.  Stanford Report.  October 19, 2001

Stacking Sequence Optimization of Laminated Plates by Genetic Algorithm.
     Laboratory for Scientific Visual Analysis.  Modified: Thursday, January 07, 1999.  http://www.sv.vt.edu/classes/ESM4714/Student_Proj/class94/henderson/henderson.html

Some Web Summaries of the Seven Multiple Intelligences.  University of Dallas.  Modified Tuesday, May 28, 2002 http://gsmweb.udallas.edu/iep/immweb/seven_intel.html

Left vs. Right Brain.  Funderstanding.  On Purpose Associates, 1998-2001 http://www.funderstanding.com/right_left_brain.cfm

Left vs. Right Brain Modes.  Richards Institute of Education and Research.  Modifed: Monday, October 20, 2003.  http://www.educationthroughmusic.com/brain.htm 

The History of Computing, The Turing Archive for the History of Computing.  Hosted by: University of Canterbury, New Zealand and University of San Francisco, United States.  Modified: Monday, May 17, 2004 http://www.alanturing.net






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