References (Sorted by Section)


  1. Ben-Ari, Elia T. "Pheromones: What's in a Name?" Bio Science, Vol. 48, No. 7. (July 1998), pp 505-511

Human Pheromones

  1. Ben-Ari, E. T. (1998). Pheromones: What's in a name? BioScience, 48(7), 505-511.
  2. Bensafi M, Brown WM, Tsutsui T, Mainland JD, Johnson BN, Bremner EA, Young N, Mauss I, Ray B, Gross J, Richards J, Stappen I, Levenson RW, Sobel N. (2003). Sex-steroid derived compounds induce sex-specific effects on autonomic nervous system function in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(6), 1125-1134.
  3. Berglund, H., Lindstrom, P., & Savic, I. (2006). Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(21), 8269-8274.
  4. Chen, D., & Jones, J. H. (2000). Human olfactory communication of emotion. Perceptual Motor Skills, 91, 771-781.
  5. Cornwell, R., Boothrowd, L., Burt, D., Feinberg, D., Jones, B., Little, A., et al. (2004). Concordant preferences for opposite-sex signals? human pheromones and facial characteristics. The Royal Society, 27(1), 635-640.
  6. Cutler WB, Friedmann E, McCoy NL. (1998). Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27(1), 1-13.
  7. Cutler WB, Friedmann E, McCoy NL. (1998). Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1(1), 13.
  8. Cutler WB, G. E. (2002). Pheromones, sexual attractiveness and quality of life in menopausal women. Climacteric, 5(2), 112-121.
  9. Cutler WB, G. E. (1998). Wellness in women after 40 years of age: The role of sex hormones and pheromones. Disease-a-Month, 44(9), 421-546.
  10. Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. A. S. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5(3), 199.
  11. Diamond, J., Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2005). Gender-specific olfactory sensitization: Hormonal and cognitive influences. Chemical Senses, 30(1), 224-225.
  12. Forker, C. (1985). The green underworld of early shakespearean tragedy. Shakespeare Studies, , 25.
  13. Grosser BI, Monti-Bloch, L., Jennings-White, C., & Berliner, D. (2000). Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of androstadienone, a human pheromone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25(3), 289-99.
  14. Hays, W. S. T. (2003). Human pheromones: Have they been demonstrated? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 54(2), 89-97.
  15. Jacob, S., Garcia, S., Hayreh, D., & McClintock, M. (2002). Psychological effects of musky compounds: Comparison of androstadienone with androstenol and muscone. Hormonal Behavior, 42(3), 274-284.
  16. Jacob, S., Hayreh, D., & McClintock, M. (2001). Context-dependent effects of steroid chemosignals on human physiology and mood. Physiological Behavior, 74(1), 15-27.
  17. Jacob, S., Kinnunen, L., Metz, J., Cooper, M., & McClintock, M. (2001). Sustained human chemosignal unconsciously alters brain function. Neuroreport, 12(11), 2391-4.
  18. Jacob, S., McClintock, M., Zelano, B., & Ober, C. (2002). Paternally inherited HLA alleles are associated with women's choice of male odor. Nature Genetics, 30, 175.
  19. Jacob, S., & McClintock, M. (2000). Psychological state and mood effects of steroidal chemosignals in women in men. Hormonal Behavior, 37(1), 57-78.
  20. Jacob, S., Spencer, N., Bullivant, S., Sellergren, S., Mennella, J., & McClintock, M. (2004). Effects of breastfeeding chemosignals on the human menstrual cycle Human Reproduction, 19(2), 422-429.
  21. Kohl, J., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B., & Grammer, K. (2001). Human pheromones: Integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology. Neurological Endocrinology Letters, 22(5), 309-321.
  22. Marazziti D, Masala I, Baroni S, Polini M, Massimetti G, Giannaccini G, et al. (2010). Male axillary extracts modify the affinity of the platelet serotonin transporter and impulsiveness in women. Physiological Behavior.
  23. Martins, Y., Preti, G., Crabtree, C., Runyan, T., Vainius, A., & Wysocki, C. (2005). Preference for human body odors is Influenced by gender and sexual orientation. Psychological Science, 16(9), 694.
  24. McClintock, M. (1998). Whither menstrual synchrony? Annual Review of Sex Research, 9, 77.
  25. Preti, G., Wysocki, J., Barnhart, K., Sondheiner, S., & Leyden, J. (2003). Male axillary extracts contain pheromones that affect pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone and mood in women recipients. Biology of Reproduction, 68(6), 2107-2113.
  26. Savic, I. (2004). Imaging of olfaction and gustation. Nutritional Review, 62(11), 205.
  27. Savic, I., Heden-Blomqvist, E., & Berglund, H. (2009). Pheromone signal transduction in humans: What can be learned from olfactory loss. Human Brain Mapping, 30(9), 3057-3065.
  28. Savic, I., Berglund, H., & Lindstrom, P. (2005). Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(20), 7356-7361.
  29. Singh, D., & Bronstad, P. M. '. (2001). Female body odour is a potential cue to ovulation Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 268(1469), 797-801.
  30. Speilman, A., Zeng XN., Leyden, J., & Preti, G. (1995). Proteinaceous precursors of human axillary odor: Isolation of two novel odor-binding proteins. Experientia, 51(1), 40-47.
  31. Spielman AI, Zeng XN, Leyden JJ, Preti G. (1995). Proteinaceous precursors of human axillary odor: Isolation of two novel odor-binding proteins. Experientia, 51(1), 40-47.
  32. Stern, K., & McClintock, M. (1998). Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones. Nature, 392
  33. Takami, S. (2002). Recent progress in the neurobiology of the vomeronasal organ. Microscopy Research Technology, 57(3), 228-250.
  34. Tiridelli, R., Dibattista, M., Pifferi, S., & Menini, A. (2009). From pheromones to behavior. Physiol Rev, 89, 921-956.
  35. Touhara, K., & Vosshall, L. B. (2009). Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors. Annual Review of Physiology, (71), 307-332.
  36. Wedekind, C., & Penn, D. (2000). MHC genes, body odours, and odour preferences Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 15, 1269-1271.
  37. Wyart, C., Webster, W. W., Chen, J. H., Wilson, S. R., McClary, A., Khan, R. M., et al. (2007). Smelling a single component of male sweat alters levels of cortisol in women. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(6), 1261-1265.
  38. Wysocki, W., & Preti, G. (2004). Facts, fallacies, fears, and frustrations with human pheromones. The Anatomical Record Part A, , 1201-1211.
  39. Zhou, W., & Chen, D. (2008). Encoding human sexual chemosensory cues in the orbitofrontal and fusiform cortices. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(53), 14416-14421.

Primate Pheromones

  1. Giorgi, D., & Rouquier, S. (2002). Identification of V1R-like Putative Pheromone Receptor Sequences in Non-human Primates. Characterization of V1R Pseudogenes in Marmoset, a Primate Species that Possesses an Intact Vomeronasal Organ. Chemical Senses. 27 (6), 529.
  2. Liman, E. R., & Innan, H. (2003). Relaxed Selective Pressure on an Essential Component of Pheromone Transduction in Primate Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (6), 3328-3332.
  3. Michael, R. P., Keverne, E. B., & Bonsall, R. W. (1971). Pheromones: Isolation of Male Sex Attractants from a Female Primate. Science. 172 (3986), 964-966.
  4. Moody, P. A. (1953). Introduction to evolution. New York: Harper.
  5. Mundy, N. I., & Cook, S. (2003). Positive Selection During the Diversification of Class I Vomeronasal Receptor-like (V1RL) Genes, Putative Pheromone Receptor Genes, in Human and Primate Evolution. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 20, 1805-1810.
  6. Richard, A. F. (1985). Primates in nature. New York: W.H. Freeman.
  7. Zhang, J., & Webb, D. M. (2003). Evolutionary Deterioration of the Vomeronasal Pheromone Transduction Pathway in Catarrhine Primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (14), 8337-8341.

The Pheromone Industry

  1. Athena Institute. (1996). Retrieved April 26, 2010, from Athena Institute website:
  2. Black, S. L., & Biron, C. (1982, March). Androstenol as a human pheromone: No effect on perceived physical attractiveness . Behavioral and Neural Biology, 34(3), 326-330. doi:10.1016//S0163-1047(82)91711-3
  3. Brieger, P. (2004, January 15). 'Enhanced Air' Pumped Into Stores To Boost Spending . Financial Post. Retrieved from
  4. Casinos 'gassing' patrons, claime 42% bigger losses. (2004, May). The Bet's-Off Bulletin: National Coalition Against Leganized Gambling, 2(3), 1-3.
  5. Frederickson, A. (2003). Synthetic pheromones: Are they really everything they're cracked up to be? Retrieved April 26, 2010, from Associated Content website:
  6. Intimate Research Catalog. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2010, from Intimate Research Inc. website:
  7. Major retailers & casinos use "Enhanced Air Technologies'' pheromone to stimulate sluggish business. (2004, January 13). PR Newswire. Abstract retrieved from
  8. Parunak, H. V. D., Brueckner, S., Sauter, J., & Postdamer, J. (2001, May 29). Mechanisms and millitary applications for synthetic pheromones. ERIM, 1-10. doi:
  9. Pherin Pharmaceuticals. (2009). Retrieved April 26, 2010, from Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. website:
  10. Udry, J. R., & Morris, N. M. (1977, July 7). Pheromonal influences on human sexual behaviour: An experimental search. Journal of Biosocial Science, 10, 147-157. doi:10.1017/S0021932000011573
  11. Uhden, B. (2005). Human Pheromone Project. Retrieved April 26, 2010, from Human Pheromone Sciences, Inc website:
  12. Wircus, E. (2002, Spring). A Study of Pheromones. Retrieved April 26, 2010, from University of Scranton website: