Spinal Cord Injury

Links and References



References: (to be completed)




American Spinal Injury Association


Cure Paralysis Now


MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Spinal cord trauma


MedlinePlus: Medical Dictionary


National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Emerging Concepts: Spinal Cord Injury


National Institue of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Spinal Cord Injury: Hope through Research


The National Spinal Cord Injury Association


Neutrophils; central cells in acute inflammation


Immunology Tutorial


Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Vitamins


Spinal Cord Injuries: New Research and Treatments Offer Hope


Spinal Cord Injury Recovery Center







American Cancer Society (2003).  Cancer Medicine.  Hamilton: BC Decker Inc.


Banik NL, Shields DC, Ray S, Davis B, Matzelle D, Wilford G, & Hogan, EL (1998).  Role of Calpain in Spinal Cord Injury: Effects of Calpain and Free Radical Inhibitors. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 844, 131-137


Ceylan S, Ilbay K, Baykal S, Ceylan S, Sener U, Ozmenoglu M, Kalelioglu M, Akturk F, Komsuoglu SS, & Ozoran A (1992).  Research in Experimental Medicine 192, 23-33.


Faden AI, Lemke M, Simon RP, & Noble L (1998). N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK801 improves outcome following traumatic spinal cord injury in rats: behavioral, anatomic and neurochemical studies. Journal of Neurotrauma 5, 33–45


 Faden  AI, Knoblach SM, Movsesyan VA & Cernak I (2004).  Novel small peptides with neuroprotective and nootropic properties. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 6, 93-97.


Geisler FH, Coleman WP, Grieco G, & Poonian D (2001).  The Sygen multicenter acute spinal cord injury study.  Spine 26 (245), 87-98.


Guizar-Sahagun G, Ibarra A, Espitia A, Martinez A, Madrazo I, & Franco-Bourland RE (2005). Glutathione monoethyl ester improves functional recovery, enhances neuron survival, and stabilizes spinal cord blood flow after spinal cord injury in rats.  Neuroscience 130 (3), 639-649.


Hall ED & Springer JE (2004).  Neuroprotection and acute spinal cord injury: a reappraisal. NeuroRx: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 1, 80–100.


Hayashi M, Ueyama T, Nemoto K, Tamaki T, & Senba E (2000).  Sequential mRNA expression for immediate early genes, cytokines, and neurotrophins in spinal cord injury.  Journal of Neurotrauma 17 (3), 203-218.


Horita A (1998).  An update on the CNS actions of TRH and its analogs.  Life Sciences 62 (17/18), 1443-1448.


Janeway CA, Travers P, Walport M, & Shlomchik MJ (2001).  Immunobiology (5th ed.).  New York: Garland Publishing.


Kavanagh RJ & Kam PCA (2001).  Lazaroids: efficacy and mechanism of action of the 21-aminosteriods in neuroprotection.  British Journal of Anesthesia 86 (1), 110-119.


Koe RK, Akdemir H, Karakueuk EI, Oktem IS, & Menku A (1999).  Effect of methyprednisolone, tirilazad mesylate and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation after experimental spinal cord injury.  Spinal Cord 37, 29-32.


Kunihara T, Sasaki S, Shiya N, Ishikura H, Kawarada Y, Matsukawa A, & Yasuda K (2000).  Lazaroid reduces production of IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonists in ischemic spinal cord injury.  The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 69 (3), 792-798.


Lee BH, Lee KH, Yoon DH, Kim UJ, Hwang YS, Park SK, Choi JU, & Park YG (2005).  Effects of methylprednisolone on the neural conduction of the motor evoked potentials in spinal cord injured rats.  Journal of Korean Medical Science 20, 132-138.


Liao JW & Song YM (2004).  Preliminary study of the effects of high-dose Vitamin C on acute spinal cord injury in rats. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 35 (6), 854-7.


Nash HH, Borke RC, & Anders JJ (2002).  Ensheathing cell and methylprednisolone promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery in the lesioned adult rat spinal cord.  Journal of Neuroscience 22 (16), 7111-7120.


Pitts LH, Ross A, Chase GA, & Faden AI (1995).  Journal of Neurotrauma 12 (3), 235-243.


Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia AS, McNamara JO, & Williams SM (2001).  Neuroscience (2nd ed.).  Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.


Qian T, Guo X, Levi AD, Vanni S, Shebert RT, & Sipski ML (2004).  High-dose methylprednisolone may cause myopathy in acute spinal cord injury patients.  Spinal Cord, 1-5.


Saville LR, Pospisil CH, Mawhinney LA, Bao F, Simedrea FC, Peters AA, O'Connell PJ, Weaver LC, & Dekaban GA (2004).  A monoclonal antibody to CD11d reduces the inflammatory infiltration into the injured spinal cord: a potential neuroprotective treatment.  Journal of Neuroimmunology 156, 42-57.


Seidl EC (2000).  Promising pharmacological agents in the management of acute spinal cord injury.  Pharmacy Practice Management Quarterly 20 (1) 21-27.


Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Fisher SK, Albers RW, & Uhler MD (1998).  Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (6th ed.).  Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.


Squier MK, Miller AC, Malkinson AM, & Cohen JJ. (1994) Calpain activation in Apoptosis. Journal of Cell Physiology. 159 (2), 229-337.


Thompson RF (2000).  The Brain: An Introduction to Neuroscience (3rd ed.).  New York: Worth Publishers.


Villa RF & Gorini A (1997). Pharmacology of lazaroids and brain energy metabolism: a review. Pharmacological Reviews 49 (1), 99-136.