Download this handout (PDF) 

I. In-Text Citations
A. Citing Direct Quotations

  • Direct quotes include the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication and the page number. For example: "In 2006, a study showed that robots can learn patterns of behavior from movements and emotional signals around them” (Pope, 2007, p. 27).
  • If the author’s name is mentioned in a signal phrase, the name should be followed by the year of the publication to which the citation belongs. The citation should be followed by its page number. For example: Pope (2007) mentioned that “robots can learn patterns of behavior from
    movements and emotional signals around them” (p. 27).

B. Citing Paraphrased or Summarized Information
When citing paraphrased or summarized information from a source, only the author and year of publication are necessary, although the page number may be added optionally. For example:
Pope (2007) mentioned that robots can learn to respond emotionally.

II. References
In APA style, the Reference Page lists only those sources directly cited in the text of the paper rather than all background sources. The page should be labeled References and appear at the end of the paper. After the first line of each reference entry, the rest of the reference should be indented five to seven spaces from the left. Reference entries should appear in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author of each publication. Two works by the same author should appear in the chronological order in which they were published. Although the following examples are single-spaced, the Reference Page should be double-spaced, including individual entries.

Author References (for all types of sources)
Single Author (last name first, followed by initials):
Pope, H.R. (2007). Robots learn emotional responses. Current Directions in Robotic Science, 13, 25-30.

Two or More Authors (last names and initials, separated by &):
Pope, H.R., & Spears, B. L. (2007). Robots learn emotional responses. Current Directions in Robotic Science, 13, 25-30.

Eight or More Authors (list first six followed by an ellipsis and the last author):
Graham, R.M., White, J.M., Ehren, D., McClure, S., Alden, S.S., Lucking, J., . . . Mangigian, N.

Organization as Author (list the organization):
The American Robotics Association. (2006).

Unknown Author (list the source):
Encyclopedia of Robotics. (12th ed.). (2006). Boston, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Two Works by the Same Author in the same year:
Label one work, for example, (2006a) and the other (2006b).

Entries for various types of works
Article in a Periodical:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number, if paginated by issue), pages.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of Work: Subtitle in Capital Letters. Location: Publisher.

Article from an Online Periodical:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from

Article from an Online Scholarly Journal:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi: digital object identifier (if available) or Retrieved from

Non-periodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved month date, year*, from

*For all online sources, use a retrieval date only if the content is likely to change.

III. Content Notes
You may use content notes for supplementary or expanded material that might otherwise distract the reader in the body of the text. Place a superscript number (1) directly after the text that calls for the note. Place the actual notes on a separate page between the last page of text and the list of references, under the heading Footnotes. Double-space between the heading and the first entry and between each subsequent entry. The first line of each entry should be indented 5-7 spaces.

IV. Paper Format

  • An APA-style title page includes the following information, centered halfway down structor’s name, and date. Double-space between each item. Repeat the full title on the first page of the paper itself, centered one inch from the top.
  • The paper should have margins of 1” on all sides and all text should be doublespaced, including individual reference entries. A page header should appear in the upper right-hand corner of each page, starting with the title page. Include a 1-2 word summary title of the paper, followed by five spaces, and then the page number.
  • Direct quotations over 40 words long should appear in a block not surrounded by quotation marks. The quotation should start on a new line and be indented five spaces from the left. The quotation should be double-spaced, and the parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark of the quotation.

Adapted from: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.