Download this handout (PDF)

I. In-Text Citations
For a Chicago-style paper, superscript numbers (1) are used to mark citations in the body of the text. These numerical citations correspond to endnotes or footnotes providing publication information and any supplemental material.

  • Use a signal phrase to introduce the citation (e.g. According to Parekh . . . ).
  • Place the superscript number at the end of the cited material and after all punctuation marks except the dash.

For example:
According to Bhikhu Parekh, any society that includes two or more cultural communities is multicultural; however, he argues that only those societies that “make [multiculturalism] central to its understanding” and that “respect the cultural demands of its constituent communities” are multiculturalist.1

II. Notes
Notes for each citation may be placed at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes) according to the preference of your professor. For endnotes, the notes should be placed on a separate page under the heading Notes

Indent the first line of each note by five spaces (1/2 inch). Single-space both footnotes and endnotes; double-space between each note.

The first note for a source should give complete information about the source, including author name (if unknown author, begin with title); title; publication location, publisher and date; and page numbers. Additional notes for the same source should include only last name, shortened title, and pages numbers. If the note is for the same source as the previous note, replace the source’s name and title with the Latin abbreviation Ibid. For example:

  1. Bhikhu Parekh, Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), 6. For more discussion of multicultural societies, see A. Gutman ed., Multiculturalism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994).
  2. Yung-Hsing Wu, “Native Sons and Native Speakers: On the Eth(n)ics of Comparison,” PMLA 121 (2006) 1460-1462.
  3. Ibid., 1473.
  4. Parekh, Rethinking Multiculturalism, 10-11.
  5. Simone de Beauvoir, “Woman: Myth and Reality,” trans. H.M. Parshley, in A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers, 7th ed., edited by Lee A. Jacobus. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006), 784.

III. Bibliography
A bibliography is an alphabetical list of the sources cited in your paper and also the works you consulted but did not cite. Bibliographic entries contain the same information as footnotes or endnotes in a slightly different format. Specific page references are not included. The bibliography is placed on a separate page at the end of your paper (after endnotes), under the heading Bibliography. Single-space each entry, but double-space between entries. Indent the second and subsequent lines of each entry by 1/2 inch.

Book with one author:
Parekh, Bhikhu. Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Book with more than one author:
Dilks, Stephen, Regina Hansen, and Matthew Parfitt. Cultural Conversations: The Presence of the Past. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1995.

Book with an editor:
Gutman, A., ed. Multiculturalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Selection in an anthology or a book chapter with an author, editor, and/or translator:
Beauvoir, Simone de. “Woman: Myth and Reality.” Translated by H.M. Parshley. In A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers, 7th ed., edited by Lee A. Jacobus, 784-794. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006.

Article in a journal paginated by volume:
Wu, Yung-Hsing. “Native Sons and Native Speakers: On the Eth(n)ics of Comparison.” PMLA 121 (2006): 1461-1474.

Article in a journal paginated by issue: (Include issue number directly after volume no.)
McGowen, Abigail. “An All-Consuming Subject.” Journal of Women’s History 18, no. 4 (2006): 31-54.

Web site:
Wardle, Francis. “History of Contemporary Multiracial Movement, Part I.” Interracial Voice. 2005, <˜intvoice/> (20 Feb 2007).

IV. Paper Format

  • A Chicago-style title page includes (1) the paper title and author name, centered halfway down the page and (2) the course name, professor’s name, and submission date, centered near the bottom margin. The title page is not numbered.
  • All pages of the text should be numbered in the upper right-hand corner. If there is a title page, begin the text with page number 2. Place your last name or a shortened title before page numbers.
  • Double-space all text in the body of the page, including block quotations. Although there is no absolute length guideline for setting off quotations in Chicago style, typically set off all quotations of four lines or more. Indent these block quotations one inch from the left margin and do not enclose them in quotation marks.