Course Descriptions

Biology

BIOL 112 - Origins

Life! It is everywhere on Earth, from the poles to the equator, from the deepest oceans to the tallest mountains, from frozen ice to boiling hot springs. Over the last 3.6 billion years, living organisms on Earth have evolved and adapted to almost every imaginable environment. In this course we will journey back to the beginning of the story and explore the major originations and transitions of life on Earth, from the origin of life itself to the development of flight, flowering plants, and the return of land-dwelling organisms to the sea. This is a course about evolution on a grand scale, set on the Earth's remarkable stage. Counts toward a biology minor. Three lecture hours per week.

Frequency: Offered most years.

BIOL 116 - Community and Global Health: Biological Paradigms

Community and global health discourses reside at the intersection of biology and geography - from health issues in local communities to transnational health problems and solutions in the era of globalization. Students in this course use the framework of biological mechanisms to analyze case studies of urgent public health challenges such as current and emerging infectious diseases, environmental toxicants, epidemics of chronic inflammatory diseases, public health genomics, nutrition, and maternal and child health. We explore the complex interplay of biological, social, cultural and political factors in the ways in which our local and global communities access this fundamental human right. Regular guest speakers from Twin Cities community health organizations bring our focus to local community health action. This course counts toward a minor in Biology but not toward a major in Biology. Three lecture hours per week, plus lab.

Frequency: Offered every year.

BIOL 117 - Women, Health and Reproduction

This course will deal with those aspects of human anatomy and physiology which are of special interest to women, especially those relating to sexuality and reproduction. Biological topics covered will include menstruation and menopause, female sexuality, conception, contraception, infertility, abortion, pregnancy, cancer, and AIDS. Advances in assisted reproductive technologies, hormone therapies, and genetic engineering technologies will be discussed. Not open to biology majors. This course fulfills 4 credits in the science distribution requirement and counts toward the biology minor, but not toward the major. Three lecture hours per week.

Frequency: Offered every year.

Cross-Listed as

WGSS 117

BIOL 144 - Lakes, Streams and Rivers

Minnesota, the land of 10,000 lakes, is also home to numerous streams and rivers. In this course we will examine the nature of these aquatic ecosystems; exploring their ecology, geology and chemistry. We will also investigate human impacts through such practices as agriculture, urbanization and industrialization, on these important ecosystems. Students will complete projects exploring various aspects of local waterbodies, especially the Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers.

Frequency: Offered every year.

Cross-Listed as

ENVI 144.

BIOL 161 - Biotechnology and Society

This course will explore fundamental concepts in cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology by examining the scientific basis for developing and using novel biotechnologies in agriculture, medicine, and other arenas. Readings, lectures, discussions, and student presentations will focus on topics such as genetic manipulation of organisms (ranging from agricultural plants and animals to use of gene therapy and stem cells in humans), analysis and application of human genomic information ('race-based' medicine, genetic disease mapping), and DNA fingerprinting and the polymerase chain reaction (with special attention to prenatal and pre-implantation diagnosis and forensic applications), and will include historical and social perspectives. Students will examine science as an empirically based form of knowledge. Three lecture hours per week.

Frequency: Offered occasionally.

BIOL 163 - The Enchanted Cortex: A Journey Inside the Brain

An introduction to the fundamental concepts in cell biology and genetics through an exploration of the structure and function of the brain. Readings and discussion will focus on a number of topics that may include how chemicals produced in the brain affect emotions, mood and memory; and the effect of drugs on brain function including the use of neuroactive drugs in the treatment of "mental illness." This course counts toward a biology minor but not a biology major. Three lecture hours per week.

Frequency: Offered occasionally.

BIOL 194 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

BIOL 255 - Cell Biology and Genetics Laboratory Methods

An intensive exploration of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure, chemistry, and function with an emphasis on laboratory methods, data analysis, and experimental design. Using the same tools used to advance our understanding of modern cell biology and genetics, this lab requires students to become familiar with a mixture of biochemical, cytological, and genetic techniques as they develop testable hypothesis related to topics such as enzyme function, inheritance patterns, genome structure and gene expression, and cell-to-cell signaling.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

BIOL 260 - Genetics

An introduction to the principles of genetics, including topics from classical Mendalian concepts to the contemporary molecular biology of the gene. Three lecture hours per week.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

CHEM 111 or concurrent enrollment in CHEM 111, CHEM 112,or CHEM 115.

BIOL 265 - Cell Biology

An introduction to the molecular and cellular processes of living organisms. Special attention is paid to problems faced by living cells in the acquisition of energy, growth and repair, reproduction and communication with other cells. Recent advances in biotechnology are also discussed.Three lecture hours.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

CHEM 112 or CHEM 115.

BIOL 270 - Biodiversity and Evolution

An introduction to the diversity and history of life. This course surveys the major groups of organisms (their morphology, physiology, reproductive cycles) and their evolutionary origins and relationships. Using recent findings from such diverse fields as molecular phylogenetics, developmental biology, and paleontology, this course introduces students to the major branches on the tree of life. Three hours lecture and one three-hour lab each week.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

BIOL 285 - Ecology

An introduction to the study of ecological theory and processes. The subject of this course is the natural world and the current and past processes that have shaped it.  Taking a systems approach, major ecological patterns and processes are described and proposed underlying mechanisms are investigated through readings, field and laboratory studies. The impact of humans on natural systems is also examined. Three hours lecture and one three-hour lab each week.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Cross-Listed as

ENVI 285

BIOL 294 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

BIOL 342 - Animal Behavior/Ecology

A study of animals in their natural habitats. This course takes an evolutionary approach to the study of animal behavior. Through lectures, field trips, readings and discussions, students are introduced to current ideas and research methods in the field of behavioral ecology. In addition, students will become familiar with many of Minnesota's birds and mammals.Three lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered every spring semester.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 270 and BIOL 285.

BIOL 344 - Aquatic Ecology

The study of freshwater organisms and their environments. Students are introduced to the ecology of lakes, streams, and ponds, especially those of Minnesota. Through lectures, field trips and laboratory experiments, students will learn to identify aquatic plants and animals and will study their interactions. Additional topics include water chemistry and environmental pollution of freshwater systems. Three lecture hours and one four-hour laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered most fall semesters.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 285 or ENVI 285.

BIOL 345 - Field Botany

A study of the evolution, ecology, geography, and taxonomy of vascular plants. Students learn the principles of plant classification and, through first hand experience the techniques of plant identification, collection, and preservation. Through field trips, students will become familiar with many of the local trees, wildflowers, and ferns. Three lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered most fall semesters.

Prerequisite(s)

For biology majors: BIOL 285; for others: permission of the instructor.

BIOL 351 - Biochemistry I

A study of biological processes at the molecular level with an emphasis on the chemistry of biological molecules, elements of physical biochemistry, the structure of proteins, the mechanisms and kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions, and selected topics in intermediary metabolism, including the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Three lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered every fall semester.

Prerequisite(s)

CHEM 212, BIOL 255, BIOL 260, and BIOL 265, or permission of the instructor.

Cross-Listed as

CHEM 351

BIOL 352 - Biochemistry II

A continuation of BIOL 351. A study of biological processes at the molecular level with an emphasis on the metabolism of amino acids, nucleotides, the regulation of biochemical pathways, and topics in molecular biology such as gene replication, the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, and recent advances in genomics and proteomics.Three lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered every spring semester.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 351 or CHEM 351 or permission of instructor.

Cross-Listed as

CHEM 352

BIOL 353 - Advanced Genetics

An in-depth study of the principle of modern genetics, this course will examine topics which range from Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance patterns to the concepts and practices of molecular biology. Among other topics, there will be discussions on human genetics, the human genome project, and the application of genetic principles in genetic counseling. Three lecture hours.

Frequency: Offered alternate years.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 265, and CHEM 211.

BIOL 355 - Virology

This seminar course will focus on the molecular biology of viruses, including prions and retroviral vectors. Topics will include bacterial, plant and animal viral infection and replication cycles, morphology, oncogenesis, and virus-host interactions. Viruses of epidemiologic and biotechnological importance, including new and emergent viruses, will be emphasized. Students will read current literature, lead class discussions and prepare a research proposal.

Frequency: Offered occasionally.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 265 and junior or senior standing.

BIOL 356 - Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

A study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the biological basis of behavior. While particular emphasis is placed on the molecular and cellular components of the nervous system, these components are the foundation for the analysis of various systems. Discussion topics may include the role of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and receptors in learning and memory, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and drug addiction. The laboratory will be used to introduce major research techniques in neurobiology. These techniques will be used in independently designed research projects. Three lecture hours and one four-hour laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered most years.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255BIOL 260, BIOL 265, CHEM 211, and BIOL 367 or PSYC 248 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 357 - Immunology

This course is an introduction to vertebrate immunity. Its evolution, cellular and molecular mechanisms, health and disease functions and therapeutic manipulations are explored through approaches including lectures, clinical case studies, extensive reading of the primary literature, problem-solving and an intensive focus on scientific writing. The course typically includes a civic engagement component where students work with health organizations and schools in the Twin Cities area. The course laboratory uses guided exercises and independent projects to focus on current immunological techniques including flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and antibody assays. Three hours of lectures and four to six hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered every year.

Prerequisite(s)

CHEM 112, BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 265, and junior or senior standing.

BIOL 358 - Microbiology

This course is an introduction to the subdisciplines of microbiology: virology, bacteriology, immunology, parasitology and mycology. Emphasis is given to our efforts to understand and control microbial growth processes. Additional focus will be on the effect of microbes on humans, especially as relates to disease processes. The laboratory emphasizes determinative microbiology. Three hours of lecture/discussion and four to five hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered every year.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 265, or permission of instructor. CHEM 211 recommended.

BIOL 360 - Neuroanatomy

The structure and function of the vertebrate nervous system, with a focus on the human nervous system, will be explored through analysis of human brain specimens and sections, and artistic photographic and computer graphic representations of nervous system structures at both the microscopic and systems levels. This course is designed to provide an understanding of both the peripheral and central nervous system with a focus on brain, brainstem, and spinal cord structure and function through observation and study of normal brain tissue and discussion of clinical cases. This course is intended for student with a strong interest in neuroscience. Three hours lecture and one three-hour lab each week.

Frequency: Offered every other year.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255 and BIOL 260.

BIOL 361 - Invertebrate Animal Diversity

An introduction to the science of invertebrate zoology. The vast majority of animals are invertebrates, including beautiful and charismatic organisms such as corals and butterflies, and also pests and parasites such as mosquitoes and tapeworms. Students will become familiar with all major and some minor phyla of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater animals. Through lectures, discussions, field trips, dissections, and laboratory observations of live organisms students will learn to identify invertebrates and understand their anatomy, life cycles, and evolutionary history. Students will complete independent projects involving field collection and identification of either insects or shells (mollusks). Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab each week.

Frequency: Offered every other year.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 270.

BIOL 365 - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Verebrates are among the first animals that come to mind when we consider the diversity of life on Earth. These backboned organism include more than 50.000 living species that range in size from a fish weighing less than an aspirin to a whale that is the largest animal ever to evolve. Vertebrates live in virtually every habitat on Earth and fly higher, swim deeper, and move faster than any other group of organisms. In this course, we will investigate the variety of vertebrate form and function through the lens of evolutionary history and dissection of representative vertebrates. Emphasis is placed on the origin and diversification of the basic vertebrate body plan and the morphological, functional, and evolutionary patterns that result. Three hours of lecture/discussion and three hours of laboratory dissection each week.

Frequency: Offered most years.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 270 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 367 - Human Physiology

An introduction to human physiology. The course focuses on the major physiological systems of the human body (e.g., circulatory, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital and the nervous system). A special emphasis is placed on homeostatic mechanisms and the role of the endocrine and nervous system in this process. Lecture/discussion will span the basic structure and function of these systems as well as the underlying cellular mechanisms. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab each week.

Frequency: Offered every year.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255 and BIOL 265.

BIOL 368 - Plant Physiology

A study of plant function that focuses on the biochemical, molecular, and cellular aspects of photosynthesis, metabolism, and hormone action. Emphasis will be placed on how these processes are integrated and fine-tuned to allow plants to adapt and function under a variety of environmental conditions.

Frequency: Offered occasionally.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 270, BIOL 265, and CHEM 112, or CHEM 115

BIOL 369 - Developmental Biology

This course aims to integrate organismal, cellular, genetic and molecular approaches to the study of animal development. We will analyze a diversity of mechanisms, ranging from ones that set up pattern formation in the unfertilized egg to those governing morphogenesis of organ systems. Evolution of developmental mechanisms will also be discussed. The lab component will incorporate both descriptive and experimental embryological techniques. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory period per week.

Frequency: Offered most fall semesters.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 265. BIOL 270 is highly recommended.

BIOL 394 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

BIOL 472 - Research in Molecular Biology

Collaborative research with a faculty member focused on understanding the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying developmental and physiological processes in plants and/or animals. This research course requires students to use journal papers as the focus for class reading and critical analysis. Through class presentations, discussions, and intensive bench work, students will become familiar with several research methodologies for isolating and manipulating DNA, for analyzing gene expression, and for studying gene function.

Frequency: Offered most years.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 265, and permission of instructor.

BIOL 473 - Research in Immunology

This course involves collaborative research with a faculty member on a current problem in immunology. Students participate in intensive reading of primary literature, journal-club style presentations, detailed experimental design and written and oral presentation of proposed research projects. The laboratory component focuses on acquiring independent research skills, gaining technical expertise and carrying out novel research. Three hours of lectures and four to six hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Offered every year.

Prerequisite(s)

CHEM 112 or CHEM 115BIOL 255, BIOL 260, BIOL 265, and permission of the instructor.

BIOL 474 - Research in Biochemistry

Students will be given an opportunity to design and execute a research project in biochemistry in collaboration with a faculty member. In addition to extensive laboratory research, readings and discussion of primary literature and writing of both research proposals and scientific papers will be pursued.

Frequency: Offered most years.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 351 and permission of the instructor.

BIOL 475 - Research in Neuroscience

This course offers an opportunity to work with a faculty member on current research in neuroscience. Extensive laboratory research, readings and discussion of the scientific literature related to the research area are undertaken. A research project is selected in consultation with the instructor.

Frequency: Offered occasionally.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 367, BIOL 356, CHEM 211, Junior or Senior standing and permission of instructor.

BIOL 476 - Research in Biodiversity and Evolution

This course offers an opportunity to work with a faculty member on current research in animal diversity and evolution. Lab periods will be devoted to fieldwork, lab work, and data analysis. Lecture periods will focus on discussion of the scientific literature related to the research area undertaken. Research projects will be undertaken in the fields of population genetics, phylogenetic systematics, or biogeography. Techniques may include field collection of animals, species identification, DNA sequencing, analysis of genetic data sets, and scanning electron microscopy. Three hours of lecture/discussion and three hours of lab per week.

Frequency: Offered every other year.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 270 , BIOL 285, Junior or Senior standing, and permission of instructor.

BIOL 481 - Seminar in Evolution

An exploration of one of the central organizing ideas of modern biology, the theory of evolution. Topics that will be covered include natural and sexual selection, adaptation, comparative methods, phylogeny, speciation, population genetics, molecular evolution, the origin of life, and others. The course will consist of lectures and discussions based on readings drawn from a variety of sources with an emphasis on primary literature. Three lecture/discussion hours per week.

Frequency: Offered every year.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 270, BIOL 285, and Junior or Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 486 - Seminar in Neuropharmacology

This is an advanced course that will focus on the study of drugs used to alter the central nervous system. The course will begin with basic pharmacological principles and then concentrate on the various uses of drugs to alter brain neurochemistry. Topics for discussion will include the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, depression, pain, anxiety and generally, the neurochemical basis of behavior. In addition to discussion of the use of drugs for clinical purposes, a significant amount of time will be spent on the use of "drugs of abuse" (e.g. cocaine, marijuana, LSD). While the focus of the course will be on the biochemical mechanisms of these drugs, an effort will be made to investigate and discuss the sociological ramifications of drug use. Three discussion/lecture hours per week.

Frequency: Offered every other year.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 356 and Junior or Senior standing or permission of instructor.

Cross-Listed as

PSYC 386

BIOL 487 - Seminar in Immunology

This seminar course focuses on a particular topic of current interest within immunological research, such as cancer immunology, transplantation biology, allergy, autoimmunity and vaccine development. The course meets in a journal club format with weekly roundtable discussions of primary articles and secondary reviews in the area of study and emphasizes close and critical reading of experimental literature. Students will participate through discussion, written and oral presentation of critiques of the readings, and a final individual project. Three discussion hours per week.

Frequency: Offered occasionally.

Prerequisite(s)

BIOL 357 and permission of instructor.

BIOL 489 - Senior Seminar

A weekly class consisting of a variety of activities, including career guidance and invited presentations by professionals who speak on a wide range of biologically related topics.  As part of the seminar, students complete their Senior Presentation, a multiple-draft paper written over the course of the semester accompanied by a 15 minute seminar on the paper's topic.  Satisfactory completion of the Senior Presentation is a required to receive credit for the Senior Seminar, which all majors must complete to graduate with a Biology major.

Frequency: Offered every spring semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Senior standing.

BIOL 494 - Topics Course

Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing.

BIOL 611 - Independent Project

This is an opportunity for students to do independent study or research on a biological topic. This may be done in the department under the direct supervision of a faculty member; it may be done at another college or university or similar institution under direct supervision; or in certain circumstances it may be done off campus with minimal direct supervision. Given the nature of independent projects, students need to demonstrate they have the necessary academic background, including appropriate coursework, in the area they are interested in pursuing before an independent will be approved. The independent may be undertaken during a semester, during January, or during the summer.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

BIOL 612 - Independent Project

This is an opportunity for students to do independent study or research on a biological topic. This may be done in the department under the direct supervision of a faculty member; it may be done at another college or university or similar institution under direct supervision; or in certain circumstances it may be done off campus with minimal direct supervision. Given the nature of independent projects, students need to demonstrate they have the necessary academic background, including appropriate coursework, in the area they are interested in pursuing before an independent will be approved. The independent may be undertaken during a semester, during January, or during the summer.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

BIOL 613 - Independent Project

This is an opportunity for students to do independent study or research on a biological topic. This may be done in the department under the direct supervision of a faculty member; it may be done at another college or university or similar institution under direct supervision; or in certain circumstances it may be done off campus with minimal direct supervision. Given the nature of independent projects, students need to demonstrate they have the necessary academic background, including appropriate coursework, in the area they are interested in pursuing before an independent will be approved. The independent may be undertaken during a semester or over the summer.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

BIOL 614 - Independent Project

This is an opportunity for students to do independent study or research on a biological topic. This may be done in the department under the direct supervision of a faculty member; it may be done at another college or university or similar institution under direct supervision; or in certain circumstances it may be done off campus with minimal direct supervision. Given the nature of independent projects, students need to demonstrate they have the necessary academic background, including appropriate coursework, in the area they are interested in pursuing before an independent will be approved. The independent may be undertaken during a semester or during the summer.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Required special section for students conducting research during January of their senior year for 2 credits and permission of instructor.

BIOL 621 - Internship

This is an opportunity for students to work with professionals in the biological field outside of academia. Students will work with a faculty sponsor and their site supervisor to develop a set of learning goals, strategies to meet these goals, and methods of evaluation for the internship, including the nature of the final product. An internship is an excellent way for students to apply knowledge learned in the classroom and laboratory, to learn more biology, and to explore career options. The internship may be undertaken during a semester, during January, or during the summer and must encompass at least 35 hours of work (equal to 2.5 hours per week). S/D/NC grading.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

BIOL 622 - Internship

This is an opportunity for students to work with professionals in the biological field outside of academia. Students will work with a faculty sponsor and their site supervisor to develop a set of learning goals, strategies to meet these goals, and methods of evaluation for the internship, including the nature of the final product. An internship is an excellent way for students to apply knowledge learned in the classroom and laboratory, to learn more biology, and to explore career options. The internship may be undertaken during a semester, during January, or during the summer and must encompass at least 70 hours of work (equal to 5 hours per week). S/D/NC grading.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

BIOL 623 - Internship

This is an opportunity for students to work with professionals in the biological field outside of academia. Students will work with a faculty sponsor and their site supervisor to develop a set of learning goals, strategies to meet these goals, and methods of evaluation for the internship, including the nature of the final product. An internship is an excellent way for students to apply knowledge learned in the classroom and laboratory, to learn more biology, and to explore career options. The internship may be undertaken during a semester or during the summer and must encompass at least 105 hours of work (equal to 7.5 hours per week).  S/D/NC grading.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor. 

BIOL 624 - Internship

This is an opportunity for students to work with professionals in the biological field outside of academia. Students will work with a faculty sponsor and their site supervisor to develop a set of learning goals, strategies to meet these goals, and methods of evaluation for the internship, including the nature of the final product. An internship is an excellent way for students to apply knowledge learned in the classroom and laboratory, to learn more biology, and to explore career options. The internship may be undertaken during a semester, during January, or during the summer and must encompass at least 140 hours of work (equal to 10 hours per week). S/D/NC grading.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

BIOL 641 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project. The independent may be undertaken during a semester, during January, or during the summer.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

BIOL 642 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project. The independent may be undertaken during a semester, during January, or during the summer.  Honors students are required to register for a 2 credit honors independent during January of their senior year.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

BIOL 643 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project. The independent may be undertaken during a semester or during the summer.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.

BIOL 644 - Honors Independent

Independent research, writing, or other preparation leading to the culmination of the senior honors project. The independent may be undertaken during a semester or during the summer.

Frequency: Offered every semester.

Prerequisite(s)

Permission of instructor.