All biology majors will complete a common core of biology courses and additional supporting courses. The purpose of the core courses is to give students exposure to the breadth of the field of biology and to provide them with essential knowledge and competencies in the areas of genetics, cell biology, ecology, and evolution that, together, will give them the necessary background and tools they need to excel in whatever area of biology they choose to pursue.
Following the core courses, an appropriate course of study at the undergraduate level will vary from student to student depending upon the student's interests and career goals. For example, students majoring in biology may choose to take a broad course of study in the discipline thus maximizing exposure to major disciplinary concepts and providing a strong background for specialization at the graduate level. Alternatively, biology majors may choose to focus on a particular subdiscipline of biology or on the intersection of biology with another discipline.
After core and intermediate level study, biology majors often participate in a research experience at the advanced level, which is empirical in nature (i.e. based on the testing of an hypothesis through observation or experimentation.) Ordinarily, students complete this research during their junior or senior year after significant coursework in biology and supporting disciplines has been completed.
Effective catalog-Students are normally expected to satisfy the major or minor requirements in effect at the time of the declaration of their biology major. The requirements for a major in biology are: 32 credits in biology (consisting of four core courses and four upper level courses) and three supporting courses (12 credits), for 44 total required credits. Students may count only one course from Biology 470-478 or one independent study or internship toward their biology major. Transfer students wanting to graduate from Macalester with a major in biology must take at least four 4-credit biology courses at Macalester, only one of which can be an internship or independent. Biology majors wishing to take a biology or supporting course at an institution other than Macalester must check with the department chair prior to taking the course, at which time the chair will let the student know whether the course will count toward the student's major in biology.
Required courses in biology for the major:
1. Introductory Courses
BIOL 170 - Ecology and the Environment
BIOL 180 - Biodiversity and Evolution
BIOL 190 - Genetics
BIOL 200 - Cell Biology
BIOL 170, BIOL 180, and BIOL 190 may be taken in any order, have no prerequisites, are suitable for first year and sophomore students, and each have associated laboratory sections. BIOL 190 and CHEM 112 are prerequisites for BIOL 200. BIOL 200 is recommended for sophomore students. Ideally, all four courses should be completed by the end of the sophomore year and prior to studying abroad, and must be completed no later than the end of the junior year.
2. Upper Level Courses
Four upper level biology courses, at least two with laboratory. Limits on credits for off-campus courses: A student may, with the permission of the department chair, count one course taken on an off-campus program (i.e. Study Away) towards the major as an upper level course without a laboratory. A maximum of two courses in biology taken at other universities or colleges (including foreign universities or off-campus programs) may be counted towards the major at the discretion of the department chair.
3. Capstone Requirement
The biology capstone represents an opportunity for students to integrate their biological knowledge and skills, engage with the primary literature to address an interesting biological question, and communicate their work to the department in a public presentation. There is no capstone paper required. Instead, the capstone takes the form of clear scientific communication in a variety of possible formats, chosen by the student (e.g., lightning talk, infographic, visual abstract, podcast, etc.). The capstone will be based on something that has sparked the student's interest during their experience as a Biology major at Macalester. Students may choose to develop a presentation based on a class paper or project, a summer or study-away research experience, or an impactful internship. Many students might decide to integrate their Biology focus with other interests, merging two majors or foci into a single capstone presentation (e.g., neurobiology of meditation, or photography and biological imaging). The possibilities are open-ended. The department encourages students to think creatively to highlight their own passions and insights about biology. The capstones will be shared online, as well as via an in-person celebration of student achievement in the Spring of Senior year (Spring of Junior year for December graduates).
Honors students will also participate in this "science communication" focused capstone experience, in addition to the other requirements of the Honors Thesis in Biology.
Supporting courses for the biology major:
A strong background in supporting sciences is important to all students studying biology. Many core concepts in biology have their foundation in the physical sciences and mathematics. Furthermore, the work of biologists continues to become more interdisciplinary. For these reasons, all majors must complete an approved set of supporting courses.
Required supporting courses:
CHEM 111 - General Chemistry I: Structure and Equilibrium
CHEM 112 - General Chemistry II: Energetics and Reactivity or CHEM 115 - Accelerated General Chemistry
STAT 155 - Introduction to Statistical Modeling (see math/statistics guidelines below)
Note: Students with sufficient prior background in chemistry, and with approval from the Chemistry Department, may be exempted from taking CHEM 111 and may enroll directly into CHEM 112 or CHEM 115 .
All students must enroll in STAT 155 - Introduction to Statistical Modeling.
The Biology major does not require calculus, but some elective courses for the major and/or required courses for the Biochemistry emphasis require a prerequisite of MATH 137 - Applied Multivariable Calculus II; PHYS 227 - Principles of Physics II and CHEM 311 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Students who plan to take CHEM 312 - Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy are advised to take MATH 237 - Applied Multivariable Calculus III. MATH 237 - Applied Multivariable Calculus III is appropriate for students who have a strong high school calculus background at the level of AP calculus with a BC score of 4 or higher. MATH 135 - Applied Multivariable Calculus I s appropriate for students who have not had any high school calculus or who have had a high school calculus at the level of AP calculus with an AB score of 3 or lower. MATH 137 - Applied Multivariable Calculus II s appropriate for students who have had a year of high school calculus at the level of AP calculus with an AB score of 4 or higher.
Elective supporting courses:
One additional elective supporting course is required for the biology major. A 100-level biology course taken during the student's first semester may count as a supporting course. Other elective supporting courses may include: ANTH 115 - Biological Anthropology, ANTH 239 - Medical Anthropology, ANTH 240 - Human Osteology and Paleopathology, CHEM 211 - Organic Chemistry I, COMP 123 - Core Concepts in Computer Science, ENVI 275 - Outdoor Environmental Education in Theory, Policy and Practice, GEOG 225 - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, GEOL 165 - History/Evolution of Earth, GEOL 300 - Paleobiology, MATH 135 - Applied Multivariable Calculus I, MATH 137 - Applied Multivariable Calculus II, MATH 237 - Applied Multivariable Calculus III, STAT 125 - Epidemiology, PHYS 226 - Principles of Physics I, PSYC 180 - Brain, Mind, and Behavior or another course approved by the Chair.
Selection of the elective supporting courses should be made in consultation with the student's advisor and must be approved by the Chair. Long-term goals typially will influence the choice of supporting courses. For example, students interested in a career in medicine or research in the biomedical sciences normally should complete a year of organic chemistry and a year of introductory physics. Students interested in pursuing an ecology path should consider taking a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) course, intermediate or advanced math or statistics, and/or a geology course. Students planning a career as a science educator at the primary or secondary level should consider taking supporting courses in several of the science departments, as well as courses from the Educational Studies Department.
Individualizing the Biology Major
In consultation with one or more biology faculty members, each student will develop a major plan by choosing appropriate electives in biology and supporting disciplines. By their choice of electives, students may explore a variety of biological subdisciplines or focus on one or two areas of study. For example, students may design majors that focus on such areas as ecology; evolution; immunology and microbiology; genetics, cell and developmental biology; plant biology; biochemistry; or neurobiology. Biology majors interested in attending medical school after graduation should refer to the "Premedical Program" in the "Special Programs" section of this catalog and should consult a premedical advisor as early as possible in their planning process.
Requirements for the major with added emphasis
Increasingly, biological scientists address questions by working in groups that are interdisciplinary in nature. Thus, interdisciplinary fields of study have emerged that cannot be adequately covered within a single department. Biochemistry can be explored through an added emphasis to a biology major. Students choosing such a major will have this noted on their transcript (e.g. Biology Major with Added Emphasis in Biochemistry). In all cases, students must successfully complete the full set of requirements for the biology major. It is expected that the required senior presentation will be in the area of the student's emphasis. Students should configure their electives in consultation with a biology faculty member using the following guidelines:
Requirements for a Major in Biology with Added Emphasis in Biochemistry
Students with a strong interest in pursuing more in-depth study of biochemistry may want to major in biology with an added emphasis in biochemistry. This emphasis may also be a good option for students aspiring to attend medical school and/or graduate study in any biomedical field. Students choosing this option will have this noted on their transcripts as: Biology Major (Biochemistry). To earn an emphasis in biochemistry, biology students must complete all of the requirements of the biology major, with two of the upper-level electives being BIOL 351 - Biochemistry I and BIOL 352 - Biochemistry II. In addition, students must take CHEM 212 - Organic Chemistry II, and one additional elective from the list below or as approved by the Biology chair. Students interested in pursuring graduate studies in Biochemistry and/or Biophysics should take CHEM 311 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics as their additional elective; note that CHEM 311 has MATH 137 - Applied Multivariable Calculus II and PHYS 227 - Principles of Physics II as prerequisites, and students should plan their math and physics course(s) accordingly.
Required Biology Courses
- BIOL 170 - Ecology and the Environment
- BIOL 180 - Biodiversity and Evolution
- BIOL 190 - Genetics
- BIOL 200 - Cell Biology
Required Supporting Courses
- CHEM 111 - General Chemistry I: Structure and Equilibrium
- CHEM 112 - General Chemistry II: Energetics and Reactivity (CHEM 115 - Accelerated General Chemistry - may be taken in place of CHEM 111 and CHEM 112
- CHEM 211 - Organic Chemistry I
- CHEM 212 - Organic Chemistry II
Four Required Electives - At least two must have an associated laboratory component
One additional biochemistry elective from the following list or as approved by the chair:
- CHEM 222 - Analytical Chemistry
- CHEM 311 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics
- CHEM 361 - Advanced Organic Chemistry
- CHEM 411 - Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
- BIOL 312 - Microbiology
- BIOL 316 - Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- BIOL 322 - Advanced Genetics
- BIOL 357 - Immunology
- BIOL 364 - Neuroimmunology
- BIOL 366 - Plant Ecophysiology
- BIOL 400 - Seminar in Neuropharmacology
- BIOL 404 - Seminar in Genome Editing
- BIOL 406 - Seminar in Immunology
- BIOL 410 - Seminar in Stem Cell Biology
- BIOL 412 - Seminar in Cancer Biology
- BIOL 472 - Research in Molecular Biology
- BIOL 473 - Research in Immunology
- BIOL 320 - Computational Biology/CHEM 320 - Computational Chemistry
- BIOL 353 - Molecular Medicine/CHEM 353 - Molecular Medicine
- BIOL 354 - Chemical Biology/CHEM 354 - Chemical Biology
- BIOL 474 - Research in Biochemistry/CHEM 474 - Research in Biochemistry
One additional upper level Biology course