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  • An ellipsis consists of a space, three consecutive periods, and a space. No spaces between the periods.

em dash

  • No spaces around an em dash (—): “He knew—or thought he knew—he was right.”
  • Web use: Encode em dashes in HTML as —. Use spaces around dash.

en dash

  • Longer than a hyphen but shorter than an em dash. Generally means “through.” Follow Chicago 6.83–6.86. Ex: 1979–83, chapters 2–4, the London–Paris train.
  • Use the en dash for scores: “The Scots won 10–7.”
  • Web use: Encode en dashes in HTML as –.


• Do not hyphenate.